Presentation on theme: "The Nominating Process and Presidential Primaries"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Nominating Process and Presidential Primaries “Voting and Elections in the United States”
2 * How does an individual get from here… … to here ** The nominating process narrows the field of possible candidates for public office! *
3 Why is “narrowing the field” important? Example: $1,000Suppose your teacher stood in front of the class and said: “here is a $1,000 bill. Who'd like to have it?”You and everyone else in the class would say, or think, “me!”The teacher then says, “let’s hold an election.”What would probably happen, everyone in the class would most likely vote for him or herself, diluting the election by most likely resulting in a tie. No one would win the money.Suppose the teacher said, let’s hold the election tomorrow. What would happen then? Groups of Students might organize around their trusted friends who might reward them for voting for them and guaranteeing a piece of the pie.This is how the election process works. Political parties rally around candidates in order to strengthen support for one candidate as opposed to diluting the election and spreading support thin.
4 Step One: Self-Announcement * The potential candidate will form a Presidential Exploratory Committee to see if there is public support for running for the Presidency (MONEY is crucial to the process)* Self-announcement is the first step in the process – usually happens after the previous midterm elections are held *Mitt Romney announces 2012 presidential exploratory committeeA person who wants to run, simply announces it.
5 Step Two: The Primaries (and Caucuses) * Primaries are run (and paid for) by state and local governments (ARE elections) ** Caucuses are private events run by the political parties themselves (are NOT elections – more like meetings)!** This part of the process begins in January the year of a Presidential election – candidates are fighting for DELEGATES who will go to the National Convention and vote for their candidate! **What is a Caucus? - Unlike the privacy of a voting booth, a caucus is a gathering of members of a political party - either Democrats or Republicans - in which they choose the candidate they wish to nominate. The political party announces the date, time and location of a meeting at which the candidates will be discussed. Any voter registered with the party may attend. The candidates are discussed and debated, and delegates are usually chosen to represent the state's interests at the national convention. Most will commit to support one of the candidates, but some will remain undecided.In the 2008 election cycle, the Iowa caucuses were the first to occur. The Democrats in that state decided to support Barack Obama as their candidate in these caucuses. On Super Tuesday on February 4, 2008, the state of Idaho also held caucuses and the Democrats nominated Barack Obama over Hillary Clinton.In 2012, Iowa was once again the first state to hold caucuses, on January 2, Republican candidate Mitt Romney narrowly edged out Rick Santorum by a mere handful of votes! Of course, the presumed Democratic nominee in 2012 is President Obama.Each state makes its own decision as to whether to hold a caucus or a primary. Some have difficulty making up their mind. In Washington State, the state legislature decided that the state would change from a caucus system to a primary. However, the Washington State Democratic Party steadfastly decided to choose their delegates through caucuses, instead. Confusingly, votes cast for a Democratic candidate in the state primary will not count toward the delegate selection because the delegates will be selected by the caucuses. With Democratic races so tight, the confusion factor will likely be frustrating to voters and the candidates alike.* Democrats also use SUPER-DELEGATES who go to the National Convention unpledged and can cast their vote for whoever they please!
6 The Caucus System The Primary System * Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, North Dakota, Wyoming and Iowa ** American Samoa, Guam and the Virgin IslandsThe Primary System* Primary Elections are elections held within the party to choose the candidate who will oppose the other party’s candidate ** A direct primary is an indirect election!
7 As each state holds their primary or caucus, delegates are awarded to the competitors in relation to how they finish…
8 Types of Primaries* Closed primaries – voters cannot vote for a candidate in the opposite party.* If you are an identified Democrat, you can only vote for a Democratic candidate. (OHIO is considered a “Semi-Closed” Primary)* Open primaries – voters can vote for a candidate in any party.* Receive two ballots, cast one – choose on your own.
9 Now, here is where it gets confusing – BUT, we will try and keep it simple!
10 Each state has a portion of these delegates given to them by the RNC to give to the Republican candidates* 5 “At-large” delegates for each U.S. Senator (10)* 3 “District” delegates for each U.S. Representative (16x3=48)* 3 “Party Leader” delegates (3)* 0 “Electoral College” Bonus delegates* 1 “U.S. Senator” Bonus delegate* 1 “Republican Governor” Bonus delegate* 1 “U.S. House Majority” Bonus delegate* 1 “One Chamber” Bonus delegate* 1 “All Chambers” Bonus delegateThe rules for the 2012 Republican National Convention call for the following formula for determining the number of delegates:For Jurisdictions with Constitutionally Elected Members of Congress:10 At-Large delegates from each state, that is, 5 at-large delegates for each U.S. Senator [Rule 13(a)(1)].3 District delegates for each U.S. Representative as established by the 2012 census [Rule 13(a)(3)].For Jurisdictions without Constitutionally Elected Members of Congress [Rule 13(a)(4)]:6 at-large delegates from American Samoa.16 at-large delegates from the District of Columbia.6 at-large delegates from Guam.6 at-large delegates from the Northern Mariana Islands.20 at-large delegates from Puerto Rico.6 at-large delegates from Virgin Islands.For all Jurisdictions - 3 party leaders: the national committeeman, the national committee woman, and the chairman of the state Republican Party. [Rule 13(a)(2)]Bonus DelegatesPresident: States casting a majority of their 2008 Electoral Votes for the Republican Candidate receive × the Jurisdiction's Total 2008 Electoral Vote in bonus delegates. Should the District of Columbia cast the majority of their electoral votes for the Republican Candidate, the District will receive (0.30 × 16) in bonus delegates. Round any fractions UP to the next whole number. [Rules 13(a)(5) and 13(a)(7)]U.S. Senate: Award 1 bonus delegate for each Republican Senator elected in the 6 year period between January 1, 2006 and December 31, Limit 2. [Rule 13(a)(6)]Governor States electing a Republican Governor between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 receive 1 bonus delegate. Limit: 1. [Rule 13(a)(5)(i)]U.S. House: States electing Republicans to 50% or more of their U.S. House seats between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 receive 1 bonus delegate. Limit 1. [Rule 13(a)(5)(ii)]One Chamber: States electing a Republican majority to one chamber of the state legislature (OR the legislature is presided over by a Republican) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 receive 1 bonus delegate. Limit 1. [Rule 13(a)(5)(iii)]All Chambers: States electing a Republican majority to all chambers of the state legislature (OR all chambers are presided over by a Republican) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 receive 1 bonus delegate. Limit 1. [Rule 13(a)(5)(iv)]
12 “Winner-take-all” vs. “Proportional” Delegate Distribution Tuesday 6 March 2012: 63 of 66 of Ohio's delegates to the RNC are allocated to presidential contenders in today's Ohio Presidential Primary. These delegates are morally but not legally bound to any candidate.*48 district delegates are to be allocated to presidential contenders based on the primary results in each of the 16 congressional districts: each congressional district is assigned 3 National Convention delegates and the presidential contender receiving the greatest number of votes in that district will receive all 3 of that district's National Convention delegates.*15 at-large delegates (10 base at-large delegates plus 5 bonus delegates) are to be allocated to presidential contenders based on the statewide primary vote.If one candidate receives a majority of the statewide vote (more than 50%), that candidate is allocated all 15 of the at-large delegates.If no candidate receives a majority of the statewide vote, each presidential candidate receiving 20% or more of the statewide vote shall be allocated delegates accordingly based on their percentage of the vote total of those candidates who met the 20% threshold“Winner-take-all” vs. “Proportional” Delegate Distribution
13 * Democrats use a MUCH MUCH MUCH more complicated system for distributing delegates (I’ll spare you the pain)
14 Step Three: the National Convention * The National Convention is the final step in the nomination process* Purpose of the convention is to officially nominate a candidate for the upcoming Presidential election!* Signifies the end of primary season and the start of campaigning for the general election…Historically, the convention was the final determinant of the nomination, and often contentious as various factions of party insiders maneuvered to advance their candidates. Since the almost universal adoption of the primary election for selecting delegates in the last quarter of the 20th century, however, the convention's significance has diminished. The national party focuses on the convention as a unity point to bring together a party platform and state parties.* Goals for the National Conventions:1. Nominate the President/Vice-President2. Unite the party!3. Create (and accept) the party platform
15 2012 Republican National Convention Tampa, Florida – August 27, 20122012 RNC Highlights2012 Democratic National ConventionCharlotte, North Carolina – September 6, 20122012 DNC Highlights
16 * How does an individual get from here… … to here ** The nominating process narrows the field of possible candidates for public office! *