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The Roman Empire and Religion

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1 The Roman Empire and Religion
Ch. 11, Section 2 The Roman Empire and Religion

2 Happy Wednesday, April 8, 2015 Topic #3 Religious Tolerance and Conflict
WAR: Read pages and answer the following questions. What kind of religion did the Romans practice? From what groups of people did Romans adopt some gods? PRE-AP: How did the Romans deal with other religions?

3 Freedom of Worship – WAR Review
Romans usually allowed conquered people to keep their religion. Romans adopted their religion from the Greeks, but called them different names. They also believed in Egyptian, Gaul, and Persian gods. They weren’t sure what to believe in, so they worshipped them all. Romans only banned religions when they viewed them as a political problem, which is why they eventually banned Judaism.

4 Clashes with the Jews Jews believed that their God was the only god, and Romans felt they were insulting their gods by not praying to them. Romans allowed Jews to keep their religion, but the Jews created political issues when they rebelled against Roman rule in AD Jews became more bitter as they were treated harshly and taxed heavily. Their anger increased when emperor Hadrian banned Jewish rituals and practices, thinking it would end their desire for independence.

5 Read p. 334 and fill in the Cause and Effect Chain
Jews rebel against Rome after Hadrian bans Judaism

6 A New Religion A new religion began called Christianity, which was based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christianity has some of the same ideas as Judaism, but became a separate faith. There were several groups of Jews during this time. The largest group of Jews followed their laws (The Ten Commandments) very strictly. The law said that a prophet leader would appear, and they believed if they followed the closely, he would be more likely to appear.

7 Pre-AP WIO Bumper Sticker Design a bumper sticker that speaks out against Roman rule and restrictions against the Jewish religion.

8 REG WIO Complete the following chart for pages 332-334: Causes Event
Effects Jews rebel against Rome.

9 Happy Thursday! April 9, 2015 Topic #4, Jesus of Nazareth
WAR: Read p. 335 and answer the following questions: According to prophecy, from whom would the new Jewish leader be a descendant? What does Messiah mean? PRE-AP WAR: Read p. 335 and answer the following questions: Why were Jews waiting for the Messiah to arrive?

10 Jesus of Nazareth Jews hoped for a messiah, or deliverer, someone who rescues another from harm* They believed that Jesus was the messiah. *They believed that this leader would help them win back their freedom. Israelites from long ago had predicted a messiah and many of the Jews expected the messiah to be a great king like David. They thought the messiah would restore the past glories of the Israelite kingdom. His name is Greek for “chosen one”. **Crowds gathered to hear him preach.

11 Jesus of Nazareth The Bible contains the information we know about Jesus. The Bible is made up of two parts: The Old and New Testament. The Old Testament includes the history and ideas of Hebrews and Jews. The New Testament contains Jesus’ teachings and early history of Christianity.

12 The Birth of Jesus Jesus was born in Bethlehem
His mother’s name was Mary, and she was married to a carpenter named Joseph, but Christians believe God is Jesus’ father.

13 The Birth of Jesus Jesus traveled around Nazareth, spreading his teachings. He gathered up a group of 12 disciples whom Jesus chose to receive special training, and they were called apostles.

14 Crucifixion and Resurrection
Jesus’ teachings influenced many people, and the Roman authorities felt threatened. He was arrested in AD 30 Jesus was crucified, which was a type of execution where someone was nailed to a cross. Christians believe He was resurrected three days after His death. Christians believe the Resurrection was a sign that Jesus was the Messiah and Son of God.

15 1)Palm Sunday - Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the church calendar observed by Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians. It is the Sunday before Easter. It recalls the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem riding upon a donkey, when his followers shouted “Hosanna” and scattered palms in his path. In the Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches, ceremonies of the day are the blessing and distribution of crosses made from palm leaves and the recitation of one of the three synoptic accounts of the Passion. Many wear crosses made of the palm. 2)Last Supper – Jesus went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover, an important Jewish holiday. He was met by large, cheering crowds and celebrated with his disciples, in an event that became known as the Last Supper. Leaders in Jerusalem were concerned that Jesus was becoming too popular and feared an uprising, so they had Jesus arrested. Jesus was charged with treason, or disloyalty to the government. Jesus was crucified with two other criminals as a crowd watched Roman soldiers mock and torture Him. 3) Crucifixion – see above notes 4) Resurrection – Means rising from the dead. Jesus’ followers announced that He had risen from the dead. Christian tradition says that Mary Magdalene was the first to see Jesus alive again. Others, including his disciples, report seeing Him as well. His disciples pointed to His empty tomb as proof that He was the true messiah. This belief of Jesus’ resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity.

16 The Life of Jesus What did Jesus teach?
Jesus’ message was contained in a group of sayings called the Sermon on the Mount. He taught several main ideas: Love and forgive from the heart Be merciful Be peaceful Love the Lord with all your heart Love your neighbor as yourself He urged people to turn from their sins – does everyone know what a sin is? Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. In monotheistic religions, the code of conduct is determined by God. He also told them that following Jewish religious laws was not as important as having a relationship with God, whom Jesus referred to as his Father. **In them, Jesus made it clear that a person had to love and forgive from the heart and not just go through the motions of following religious laws. ***According to Jesus, God’s command was simple. He repeated the age old Jewish teaching: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.” Jesus also stressed another teaching: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” Jesus’ message of love and forgiveness helped shape the values many people in Europe and America hold today.

17 What did Jesus teach? Jesus believed in love and forgiveness, not simply following religious laws Jesus used parables to present his message. These were stories that used events from everyday life to express spiritual ideas.

18 The Life of Jesus What did Jesus teach?
The Prodigal Son told of a father who welcomed his reckless son back home with open arms. The parable of the Good Samaritan is probably the most well known. Galilee was a region just north of Judaea where Jesus preached. *He forgave his sons mistakes – this teaches that God forgives mistakes and wants all people to turn away from bad deeds and be saved. **In this story, a man is beaten by robbers. A priest and another religious leader refuse to help the injured man. However, a Samaritan, a member of a group looked down upon by Jesus’ listeners, stops to help the victim. He treats the man’s wounds and pays for his stay at an inn. Who do you think showed true love to his neighbor?

19 The Spread of Christian teaching
People who accepted Jesus as the messiah were called Christians* The Apostles were early Christian leaders who helped establish churches and spread Jesus’ word Some of the apostles wrote accounts of Jesus’ life and teachings, which are called The Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John ) Early Christians formed churches or communities for worship and teaching. They met in people’s houses, many of which were owned by women. At these gatherings, Christians prayed and studied the Hebrew Bible. They also shared in a ritual meal like the Last Supper to remember Jesus’ death and resurrection. **Simon Peter was a Jewish fisher. He knew Jesus while he was still alive and was one of the original 12 disciples called to teach Jesus’ message. He later went to Rome after Jesus died and helped set up the church there. Paul was a well-educated Jew and Roman citizen. He originally hated Christianity and persecuted Christians in Jerusalem. The chief Jewish priest in Jerusalem sent him to Damascus to stop Christians in the city from spreading their ideas. He had an unusual experience on the way to Damascus. According to Christian belief, he saw a great light and heard Jesus’ voice. He became a Christian on the spot and spent the rest of his life spreading Jesus’ Word. He founded many churches throughout the eastern Mediterranean and worked as a missionary for about 35 years. He was probably killed when Nero ordered all Christians to be killed.

20 Spread of Jesus’ Teachings
Peter and Paul were two of Jesus’ apostles Paul of Tarsus told Christians they didn’t have to obey all Jewish laws and rituals. These ideas helped the Christian Church break away from Judaism. Christians have different beliefs from Jews.

21 What Do Christians Believe?
Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God who came to save people Christians believe people can gain salvation, or be delivered or saved from sin and allowed to enter heaven, by accepting Jesus. Jesus warned that if people loved money or goods more than they loved God, they would not be saved. Christians believe in the Trinity, or one God who exists as three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

22 The Growth of Christianity
Christianity spread rapidly, and there were thousands of Christians after Jesus’ death. Local officials tried to stop the spread and banned Christianity, which began a time of persecution against Christians.

23 Growth of Christianity
The Roman general, Constantine became emperor in A.D. 312 and accepted Christianity* “In this sign, you will conquer” – flaming cross in the sky Battle of the Milvian Bridge Emperor Theodosius made Christianity Rome’s official religion . *Diocletian carried out the last great persecution of Christians. He failed, and Roman officials *Remember the bridges activity you did with Mrs. Gowland? Well, this is the bridge that she talked to you guys about – the Milvian Bridge. At this bridge, Constantine led his troops to victory after his conversion to Christianity. In 312, Constantine I defeated his stronger rival Maxentius in the famous Battle of Milvian Bridge.

24 Sum It Up What were the main ideas Jesus taught during his life?
People should turn from their sins; having a relationship with God is more important than following religious law; love God with all your heart, and love your neighbor as yourself.

25 Sum It Up Who were Peter and Paul, and why were they important?
Peter was an apostle. He was a fisher who became one of the 12 disciples. He helped set up a church in Rome. Paul was an educated man who persecuted Jesus. He saw a great light and heard Jesus’ voice on the road to Damascus. He became a Christian and an apostle. He started many churches

26 Section Wrap Up What did Jesus teach?
He taught that God was coming soon to rule the world; people should turn from their sins; having a relationship with God is more important than following religious law; love and forgive from the heart; love God with all your heart, and love your neighbor as yourself

27 Section Wrap Up How did people react to his teachings?
People responded differently to Jesus. Some followed him. Some feared him. Others disagreed with him. Still others wanted to kill him. Ultimately, leaders in Jerusalem arrested and crucified him.

28 REVIEW What are parables, and why did Jesus use them?
A parable is a story that uses events from everyday life to express spiritual ideas.

29 Review What do Christians believe they will gain by accepting Jesus and his teachings? They believe they will gain salvation, be resurrected, and have everlasting life.

30 Review Why were the Jews looking for a messiah? Did Jesus fulfill most Jews’ expectations for a messiah? Explain. Jews hoped the promised messiah would restore their freedom. Jesus did not fulfill most Jews’ expectations. They disagreed about his authenticity.

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