# Semicolons & Colons Apostrophes

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Semicolons & Colons Apostrophes
Chapter 11

A semicolon indicates a break in a sentence.
Here’s the Idea: A semicolon indicates a break in a sentence. It is stronger than a comma but not as strong as a period.

Semicolons in Compound Sentences
Use a semicolon to join parts of a compound sentence without a coordinating conjunction. Enslaved people sang songs with secret messages; the songs told listeners how to escape.

Use a semicolon between the parts of a compound sentence when the clauses are long and complicated or when they contain commas. Runaways navigated by the stars; and they lived off the land, slept outdoors, and walked hundred of miles to freedom.

Semicolons with Items in a Series
When there are commas within parts of a series, use semicolons to separate the parts. The travelers took clues from songs, such as a song about the stars; from quilts which had special coded designs; and from the other people along the way.

Where does the semicolon go?
Lets Practice!  Where does the semicolon go?

Taylor forgot her gym shoes in my classroom she rushed in during P. E
Taylor forgot her gym shoes in my classroom she rushed in during P.E. to retrieve them.

Bella writes out beautiful class notes she uses so many colored pens!

S.E. Gross students received their midterms yesterday and they mostly smiled, and sometimes frowned, and asked their parents to sign the pink copy.

Emmalee waited for the bell to ring she bolted out of the room as soon as she heard it.

The students used strategies to study for their test, such as making notecards they quizzed each other at lunch and they remembered to review their notes.

Colons A colon indicates an abrupt break.
A colon indicates that a list follows. Colons are also used after greetings in business letters and in expressions of time.

Colons Use a colon to introduce a list of items
An escapee carried few items: a knife, a flint, and a warm cloak.

Use a colon after the formal greeting in a business letter.
Dear Ms. Smith: Dear Sir:

Use a colon between numerals indicating hours and minutes in expressions of time.
Meet me at 8:00 P.M. We’ll send the message at 8:30.

Let’s Practice 

The students carried several items to reading class a notebook, their novel, and a pencil.

Dear Ms. Walsh I promise to study really hard for the writing test on Friday. Sincerely, Robert McDermott

The soccer game began at 4 00 P.M. on Tuesday evening.

Ms. Walsh has to bring many things to school in the morning her laptop, her plan book, and her notebooks.

I have to leave at 6 45 A.M. to get to work on time.

Apostrophes Here’s the idea: Apostrophes are used in possessive nouns, contractions, and some plurals.

Apostrophes in Possessives
Use an apostrophe to form the possessive of any noun, whether singular or plural.

For a singular noun, add ‘s even if the word ends in s.
Becky’s bike Louis’s kite

For plural nouns that end in s, add only an apostrophe
The girls’ house The pioneers’ messages

For plural nouns that do not end in s, add ‘s
The children’s code The people’s plan

Apostrophes in Contractions
Use apostrophes in contractions In contractions, words are joined and letters are left out. An apostrophe replaces the letter or letters that are missing.

Contractions I am  I’m She is  she’s Cannot  can’t They have  they’ve Was not  wasn’t They are  they’re

Don’t confuse contractions with possessive pronouns, which do not contain apostrophes. Possessive pronouns: Its (belonging to it – its tail) Whose (belonging to whom –whose coat) Your (belonging to you –your book) Their (belonging to them– their house)

Apostrophes in Plurals
Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of a letter, a numeral, or a word referred to as a word. Cross your t’s. The speaker used too many um’s. How many 5’s are in the answer?

Let’s Practice 

Where do I put the apostrophe?
Ians brownies were an unexpected treat in class yesterday.

Carloss paper was well written!

The boys club house was built to hold lots of treasures.

The teachers work room is air conditioned.

The mens soccer league meets on Wednesday nights.

The peoples choice for president was Barack Obama.

Im excited for the weekend!

Shes ready to take her test because she studied last night!

The dog chased its tail around and around.