Presentation on theme: "8/14/20151 Electricity & Magnetism Lessons 5th Grade Strand 5: Physical Science Standards Concept 3: Energy and Magnetism Presents:"— Presentation transcript:
8/14/20151 Electricity & Magnetism Lessons 5th Grade Strand 5: Physical Science Standards Concept 3: Energy and Magnetism Presents:
8/14/20152 Electricity Basics Electricity is….. The flow of electrons The energy sent out by batteries and generators (current electricity) The shock you can get from rubbing your feet on the carpet (static electricity) A bolt of lightning! (static electricity)
8/14/20153 All Matter is Made up of Atoms MATTER (Diamond, coal) ELEMENT (Carbon, Oxygen) ATOM (particles)
8/14/20154 Atoms What is an Atom? The smallest component in all things Made up of three smaller particles Protons (+) Neutrons (no charge) Electrons (-) Strive for stability Charged atom = ion
8/14/20155 Opposites Attract Particles with opposite charges attract each other. Attraction + _ + _
8/14/20156 Charged Atom (Ion) Stable atoms have equal protons and electron Stable atoms have no charge Free electrons will seek positively charged ions to create stability Stable Atom +++ --- Positive Ion +++ -- Negative Ion ++ ---
8/14/20157 Static Electricity The imbalance of positive and negative charges Example: a build up of negative charges in a storm cloud will travel to the ground in the form of lightening
8/14/20158 Static Electricity Start with a doorknob – no charge Walk along carpet: strip electrons from carpet that collect in your body… You become negatively charged Approach the doorknob and the positive charges move toward you. Negative charges move away.
8/14/20159 Static Electricity When close enough, the electrons will jump toward the positive doorknob and ZAP! You’ve been shocked by static electricity.
8/14/201510 Static Electricity When close enough, the electrons will jump toward the positive doorknob and ZAP! You’ve been shocked by static electricity. Now you and the doorknob have the same charge.
8/14/201511 Electricity & Ben Franklin Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) 1740’s – Proposed the notion of positive and negative charges maintain a balance except when influenced by some means. 1752 – Famous kite experiments identify lightning as a form of electrical discharge.
8/14/201512 Current Electricity Electric current is the movement of free electrons from atom to atom To start the free electrons moving an electromotive force is needed. Generator Batteries
8/14/201514 What is an Atom? The smallest component in all things Made up of three smaller particles Protons (+) Neutrons (no charge) Electrons (-) Free electrons search for positively charged ions The flow of electrons is electric current
8/14/201515 Voltage & Current Voltage Electric potential difference between two points Pushes electrons Measured in Volts Comes from batteries, electric outlets, generators Current Flow of electrons Measured in Amps 1 amp = 6,240,000,000,000,000 electrons moving past a point every second
16 Voltage is like Pressure Higher voltage pushes electrons to move faster (higher current) Higher pressure pushes water to flow faster You can have pressure without flow You can have voltage without current Pressure
8/14/201517 Current is like water flow Flow of water is similar to flow of electrons The pressure (voltage) determines how fast the water (electrons) move through the pipe (wire) There is no current without voltage Flow
8/14/201520 Conductors Materials that pass electricity easily Examples: Copper Silver Gold Aluminum Most metals
8/14/201521 Insulators Materials that resist electricity flow Examples: Wood Rubber Porcelain Glass Air Cloth Paper
8/14/201522 Electricity & Thomas Edison Thomas Edison (1847-1931) 1870’s – invented the first commercially practical incandescent light with a carbon filament. 1880 – Edison founded the Edison Electric Illuminating Company the first electric utility in New York City.
8/14/201524 What is a circuit? A circuit is a conductor path for electric current to travel through. Current will flow only if the path is a complete loop from negative to positive
8/14/201525 What makes a simple circuit? A simple circuit consists of: 1.A source - battery or generator 2.Conductors (path for current to flow) 3.An electric resistor or electric load - light bulb or an electromagnet
8/14/201526 Series Circuit In Thomas Edison’s day, most lights were connected in series (one after another) Christmas tree lights are sometimes connected in series What happens if we add another light bulb?
8/14/201527 Series Circuit – Adding bulbs Do the bulbs get brighter or dimmer? Why would they change? What if we add a million light bulbs?
8/14/201528 Parallel Circuit By making a loop for each bulb we can make a parallel circuit What are the benefits? What happens if we add another bulb?
8/14/201529 Parallel Circuit – Adding bulbs Will the brightness of the bulbs change? Why or why not? What if we add a million bulbs?
8/14/201530 Questions to Ponder What would life be like without electricity? Are the electrical outlets in your house installed in series or parallel? Can you think of an example of a series circuit in real life?
8/14/201531 What is Magnetism? Any material that attracts ferromagnetic materials including iron, steel, cobalt and nickel Can be permanent or temporary
8/14/201532 Magnetism Basics SN Magnets can be made in a variety of shapes, but all magnets have 2 poles Opposite poles attract Like poles repel All magnets have lines of force extending from one pole to the other in the 3 dimensional space around them Only Certain Types of Materials Exhibit Magnetism
8/14/201533 Magnetic Lines of Flux N magnet S Magnetic Field Magnetic lines do not cross each other. The lines go from North to South on the magnet.
8/14/201534 Magnets Attracting Each Other Pulling N S
8/14/201535 Magnets Opposing Each Other N S Pushing Apart
8/14/201537 What are the characteristics? North and south poles “di”-poles Break the magnet in half and you will have two separate magnets 3 dimensional field of attraction Transfer magnetic properties
8/14/201538 Uses for Magnets in Everyday Life Cars Power locks Homes Door bells Microwaves TV’s Refrigerators Earrings Electricity Schools Whiteboard Magnets