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Models of Human Development

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1 Models of Human Development
Chapter 2 Models of Human Development © Gallahue, D.L., & Ozmun, J.C.. Understanding Motor Development. McGraw-Hill

2 Key Concept Human Development Is Studied From a Variety of Theoretical Frameworks, All of Which Have Implications for the Motor Development and Movement Education of Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Adults

3 Theoretical Models of Development
Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) Psychosocial theory (Erikson) Maturational theory (Gesell) Environmental theory (Havighurst) Cognitive theory (Piaget)

4 Conceptual Viewpoints of Development
Phase/stage theories (descriptive) Developmental task theories (predictive) Developmental milestone theories (descriptive/predictive) Ecological Theories (explanatory)

5 Leading Developmental Theorists (Table 2.1)
Erik Erikson (phase/stage theory) Robert Havighurst (developmental task theory) Jean Piaget (developmental milestone theory) Nicholas Bernstein (ecological theory dynamic systems branch) Roger Barker (ecological theory: behavior setting branch) Urie Bronfenbrenner (ecological theory: behavior setting branch)

6 Dynamic Systems Theory Nicholas Bernstein: transactional processes (Figure 2.1)
Change is nonlinear (i.e. discontinuous) Change is self-organizing Change is governed by affordances & constraints Change is transactional (T.I.E) Change involves degrees of freedom

7 Behavior Setting Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner: ecological meaning (Figure 2.2)
Change is ecologically (i.e.. environmentally) based Change is governed by the attached meaning: - activities (what people do) - roles (people’s expected behaviors) - relationships (how we treat people) Microsystems (family, peers, school) Mesosystem (interacting microsystems) Exosystem (indirect but important social settings) Macrosystem (ones’ cultural reality) Chronosystem (one’s total life experience)

8 Phase/Stage Theory Erik Erikson: experience is destiny (Table 2.2)
Trust vs. Mistrust (mutual affirmation) Autonomy vs. Doubt and Shame (“terrible two’s”) Initiative vs. Guilt (play age) Industry vs. Inferiority (learning new skills) Identity vs. Role Confusion (fidelity & devotion) Intimacy vs. Isolation (love & affiliation) Generativity vs. Self-absorption (mid-life crisis) Integrity vs. Despair (reflection & fulfillment)

9 Milestone Theory (Table 2
Milestone Theory (Table 2.3) Jean Piaget: accommodation + assimilation = adaptation (Figure 2.3) Sensorimotor phase (basic assimilation & schema formation through movement) Preoperational phase (advanced assimilation through physical activity) Concrete operations phase (reversibility with intellectual experimentation) Formal operations phase (deductive reasoning through hypothesis formulation)

10 Developmental Task Theory (Robert Havighurst: teachable moments)
Infancy - Early Childhood (birth to 5 years) Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years ) Adolescence (13 to 18 years) Early adulthood (19 to 29 years) Middle Adulthood (30-60 years) Later Maturity (60>)

11 Concluding Concept Although A Variety of Theories Attempt to Both Describe and Explain Human Development, All Fall Short

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