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Theories in Human Development

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Presentation on theme: "Theories in Human Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories in Human Development

2 Theories… what are they good for?
Understanding Generalization A basis for decision making Predicting future events Define the next questions to ask

3 Theories Good theory criteria: Logically Emperically sound
Clear, testable and parsimonious Cover a reasonably large area of science and should integrate previous research

4 Theories of Human Development
A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.

5 Nature versus Nurture The questions: Which? How? How much? Behaviorist
Pscychoanalytic How much? Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism

6 Theories of Human Development
Psychoanalytic Theory A theory of human development irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior. often originating in childhood Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)

7 Psychoanalytic Theory- Freud
Libido Personality has 3 parts that change over time: Id Ego Superego

8 Psychoanalytic-Freud
Defense Mechanisms Repression Reaction Formation ature=relmfu Projection Regression Fixation

9 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
© 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

10 Psychoanalytic-Freud
Optimum development Emphasis on the formative role of the early experience What do you think? How important are the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality?

11 Psychoanalytic - Erikson
A student of Freud’s Followed Freud’s stage theory Development = Inner instincts X Cultural/social demands Throughout the lifespan Development occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises

12 Psychoanalytic- Erikson
8 crisis: Trust V. Mistrust Autonomy v. shame and doubt Initiative v. guilt Industry v. inferiority Identity v. role confusion Intimacy v. isolation Generation v. stagnation Integrity v. despair


14 Theories of Human Development
Behaviorism Observable behavior Conditioning

15 The Elements of Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR) Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR) Neutral stimulus (NS) Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli NS and US presented together NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR) « Discussion Tip Ask students to come up with their own examples of classical conditioning. Then have them write their examples on the board, labeling the different components. Have the class analyze the examples for accuracy.

16 Theories of Human Development
Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) Desired outcomes = more likely to repeat Undesired outcomes = less likely to repeat

17 Positive and Negative Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement Behavior leads to addition of something pleasant Negative reinforcement Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant Negative reinforcement is not punishment “Negative” means removing something Remember that reinforcement increases behavior

18 Positive and Negative Punishment
Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior Positive punishment Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior Negative punishment Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior « Teaching Tip Caution students not to make the very common mistake of confusing negative reinforcement with punishment. To reinforce this, have them generate original examples of the four consequences that can follow a behavioral response. « Discussion Tip Ask students to come up with examples of how they have been conditioned through instrumental conditioning in the past. Then have them explain how these examples fit with the Law of Effect.

19 Theories of Human Development
Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura (b. 1925) An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.

20 Social Learning Theory and Cognition
Four steps to modeling Attention Retention Reproduction of behavior Motivation « Discussion Tip Ask students to discuss why kids are more likely to be found playing Batman on the playground than Barney. Use this to lead into a discussion of what characteristics make a model attractive to children (e.g., being powerful).

21 Theories of Human Development
Cognitive Theory Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. Focuses on changes in how people think over time. Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

22 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

23 Theories of Human Development
Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences

24 Theories of Human Development
Systems Theory Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.

25 Theories of Human Development
Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s System microsystems (elements of the person’s immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group) exosystems (local institutions such as school and church) macrosystems (the larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes)

26 Theories of Human Development
chronosystem (literally, “time system”), which affects the other three systems mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems

27 Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner
Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments Contexts Macrosystem Exosystem Microsystem Mesosystem Biological Context © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

28 Comparing Theories © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

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