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Unit 4 Reading Difficulties Prepared by: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc., M. Psi.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Reading Difficulties Prepared by: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc., M. Psi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Reading Difficulties Prepared by: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc., M. Psi

2 Definition There’s no clear agreement! “Reading Wars” – Skills approach  emphasizes the skills needed to convert print into language – Meaning-emphasis approach  emphasis on getting meaning from print, using variety of clues: pictures, etc. Read p. 363-364

3 Reading Elements Decoding  mechanical aspect of converting print to spoken language Comprehending  ability to understand written or oral language Goal of reading  for the reader to gain information, knowledge, pleasure, or other higher-order benefits from reading (Snow, et al., 1998)

4 Reading Elements (2) 1960 – 2000s  whole-language approach – Stronger emphasis on the semantic and syntactic aspect of reading – With print-rich environment Today  primary component of reading is decoding and comprehending R = D x C

5 Reading Elements (3) Subelements needed – Decoding  knowing letters, direction of reading, and how to blend sounds together – Comprehending  store the sentence long enough that they can operate on it, attention skills and cognitive strategies

6 Problems Phonology Decoding Fluency Comprehension

7 Problems with Phonology Unable to manipulate phonemes Deficits in phonemic awareness  ability to segment words into sounds and blend sounds into words Sometimes, children use analogies to learn how to read  needed phonemic awareness and basic decoding skills

8 Problem with Decoding Using common phrase Using first letter as a cue Sometimes, can read the whole phrase or sentence correctly! Systematic and intensive instruction needed in the early grades  to reduce occurrence of decoding problems Read p. 370

9 Problems with Fluency When student can’t read effortlessly and smoothly When a student is able to decode print effortlessly  it is called automatic Fluency refers to smooth and effortless decoding, reading that sounds like talking

10 Problems with Comprehension As the result of problems with ether decoding, more general language abilities, or both Syntax  grammatical structure of language  might get the wrong ideas of the passage, even if he can read it smoothly Semantics  meaning of language  unable to understand the passage – Use inefficient strategies  wrong answers – Make mistakes when naming pictures with long name

11 Problems with Comprehension (2) World knowledge  affects reading comprehension Gist comprehension  ability to understand the theme of narratives – May focus on irrelevant parts of the passage

12 Assessments Screening – Teachers are valuable! Diagnosing problems – Diagnostic testing  finer info than screening – Informal Reading Inventories  series of reading passages or word lists graded in order of difficulties – Clinical teaching  informal, based on specific experiences with the individuals

13 Assessments (2) Monitoring Student Progress  allow teachers to make changes if needed – Reading Program Assessments  corrective reading, p. 380 – Curriculum-Based Measurement  table 12.3, p. 381

14 Prevention Alphabet principle  the idea that symbols represent sounds and that the order of sounds follows the sequence of letters in words Five generalized competencies: – Fluency – World knowledge – Flexible strategy use – Motivation – Continued reading

15 Prevention (2) Teaching Phonemic Awareness – To beginning readers – Segmenting, blending and similar skills Teaching Phonics Teaching other aspects of early reading – Explicit and systematic – Feedback

16 Intervention Historical – Fernald – Hegge-Kirk-Kirk – Orton – Gillingham Contemporary – Reading Recovery – Corrective Reading Program – Computer – assisted Instruction

17 Intervention (2) Instructional Tactics – Fluency enhancement – Peer-mediated Instruction – Reciprocal Teaching – Comprehension Strategies

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