4 Kentucky State Standards: Program of Studies Reading (1.2) Arts and Humanities (2.24, 2.25)Meaning of Text:Read materials that rhymes, is predictable, and has high frequency wordsVocabulary:Use auditory and visual strategies to understand words and their meanings.Employ sight word vocabulary to make sense of text.Use word identification strategies, including prediction, context cues, and phonetic awareness, to read and understand unknown words.Concepts of Print:Make sense of reading materials through using word-by-word matching, punctuation, sentence structure, and the understanding that letters make words.Experience with Text:Use syntactic (word structure) and semantic (word meaning) cues to make sense of text.
5 Kentucky State Standards: Core Content RD-E-x.0.1Use word recognition strategies (e.g., phonetic principles, context clues, structural analysis) to determine pronunciations and meanings of words in passages.RD-E-x.0.2Use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and compound words for comprehension.RD-E-x.0.3Know that some words have multiple meanings and identify the correct meaning as the word is used.RD-E-x.0.4Recognize the meaning of a word when a prefix or suffix has been added to a base word.
6 Learning to Read and Spell . . . requires students to remember exact letter patterns and sequences that represent speech soundsprogresses from understanding letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns to understanding meaningful unitsMeaningMorphemes(smallest meaningful units)AlphabetLetter-soundcorrespondencesPatternSpelling patterns (rimes) and syllables
7 Alphabetic Understanding and Phonics Focus on teaching the letters of the alphabet and letter-sound correspondencesThe goal of phonics instruction is to help children understand the alphabetic principle:the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words.Alphabetic Principle1
8 Letter RecognitionRecognizing, naming and writing the letters of the alphabetIdentifying and distinguishing both uppercase and lowercase letters
9 Letter Recognition Activities Alphabet MatsandAlphabet ArcsHelp children learn:Letter namesThe sequence of letters in the alphabet
10 Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonics Letter-sound knowledge involves learning the common sounds of letters, letter combinations, and spelling patternsExplicit and systematic phonics instruction teaches students a carefully selected set of letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns that are organized into a logical sequence
11 Standard Pronunciations Because we co-articulate, or blend, individual sounds together when we say words, it is sometimes difficult to isolate individual sounds.
12 Phonics and Word StudyStudents should come to understand:Sounds can be represented by single letter or combination of lettersSome letters can represent more than one soundDifferent letters can represent the same soundDifferent word study strategies can be used to decode and read unknown wordsGeneralization (or rules) may help determine the correct pronunciations of words but may not apply to every word24
13 DecodingExplicit and systematic phonics instruction includes teaching students how to decode words.Effective phonics instruction teaches students a carefully selected set of letter-sound correspondences, letter combinations, and spelling patterns that are organized into a logical sequence.
14 Decoding (cont.)Single letter-sound correspondences and letter combinations that represent a particular sound or sounds in words are usually introduced in lower primaryConsonant blends, consonant digraphs, vowel combinations (or vowel pairs) and letter combinations are the primary focus of phonics instruction in the third year of primaryIn upper primary, exploration and reinforcement of several different kinds of decoding strategies are used and practiced; the emphasis begins to shift from letter- by-letter decoding to more elaborate study of word pattern and rules
15 Decoding: What About Irregular Words? contain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used soundstend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writingcan be partially decodedare sometimes referred to as sight words
16 Sight Words Sight words are words that are recognized immediately The ultimate goal is for all words, regular and irregular, to be read automatically with little effort
17 Making AnalogiesHelps students remember words with sounds or spellings patterns that they already know and apply this knowledge to read and spell unknown wordsInclude explicit teacher modeling
18 Word Study StrategiesIdentify and blending together the letter sounds in wordsRecognizing high frequency and irregular wordsUsing common spelling patternsUsing common syllable patternsUsing structural analysisUsing knowledge of context and syntax to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning
19 Making and Sorting Words Lessons Provide opportunities for children to make, sort, and read words that consist of letter sound correspondences they are learningFocus on individual phonemes in words, spelling patterns, and blending sounds together to read words
20 Making and Sorting Words Activities ActivityWith a partner, use the letter cards at your table to practice the lesson on the handout “Reviewing Letter Sounds to Blend Sounds and Read Words”
21 Open Sort Activity Place the blank heading cards across the table Shuffle the deck of word cardsSort the words by commonalitiesCreate your own category for each set of wordsLabel the heading cards after you’ve determined the categories
22 Making Analogies: Common Syllable Patterns Closed syllable (CVC)ends in at least one consonant; the vowel is shortOpen syllable (CV)ends in one vowel; the vowel is longVowel-Consonant-e (VCe or CVCe)ends in one vowel, one consonant, and a final e; final e is silent; the vowel is longhas an r after the vowel; the vowel makes an unexpected soundVowel + r syllablehas two adjacent vowels; each vowel pair syllable must be learned individuallyVowel pair syllablehas a final consonant-l-e combination or a nonphonetic but reliable unit such as -tion /shun/; accent usually falls on the preceding syllableFinal stable syllable
23 Teaching with Word Walls Group words in different categories to help students learn to read and spell words independentlySelect words from a variety of sourcesLimit the number of words that are addedCategorize words in a variety of waysProvide many opportunities for word-wall practice
24 Structural AnalysisHelps students analyze words, or break them into parts they already know, to help them read and spell unfamiliar wordsCompound wordsBase (or root) wordsInflectional endingsPrefixesSuffixes
25 Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students Help children use phonemic awareness and their understanding of the alphabetic principle to decode words.Teach children how to transfer what they know in their native language to EnglishTeach letter combinations and sounds that do not occur in a child’s native language.
26 Monitoring Students’ Progress Regularly monitor children’s knowledge of letters and letter-sound correspondences and their ability to decode as they read words and textAdminister reading inventoriesRegularly monitor students’ phonics and word-study knowledgeListen to students read aloud instructional-level texts
27 Taking a Closer LookReview the elements of effective phonics and word study instruction on the handout “Elements of Effective Instruction: Phonics and Word StudyFind a lesson that focuses on phonics or word studyComplete the handout “Taking a Closer Look”Discuss the lesson and its elements
28 Phonics ContinuumOur experiences, and those of many teachers, suggest that once students are phonemically aware and have a grasp of the alphabetic principle they begin organizing knowledge of letter names and letter-sound correspondences in coherent and systematic ways.This systemizing of knowledge may not correspond to the neat, additive phonics progression described in a reading program, and it may proceed at a pace that lags behind or outruns the progression’s suggested time frame.
29 Phonics Continuum (cont.) We argue that students are at risk of developing superficial and piecemeal understandings rather than coherent and orderly knowledge of the alphabetic principle if teachers impose systematic phonics instruction without monitoring how students organize the information.Similarly, we reason that students are at risk of becoming disenchanted with the world of print if teachers require them to spend significant time in activities that reinforce what they already know but simulate few, if any additional insights.
30 Remember . . .Explicit and systematic phonics and word study instruction is an important component of a beginning reading program.“The goal [of systematic phonics instruction] is to enable learners to acquire sufficient knowledge and use of the alphabetic code so that they can make normal progress in learning to read and comprehend written language.”—National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 2.99