Presentation on theme: "Components important to the teaching of reading"— Presentation transcript:
1 Components important to the teaching of reading Automatic word recognition (fluency)comprehension of textdevelopment of a love of literature and a desire to read
2 The Connection Between Decoding and Comprehension Phonics ~ Decoding ~ Word Recognition ~ Reading Fluency ~ Automaticity ~ Reading Comprehension
3 Graphophonic Cues:Involve a reader’s knowledge of sound- spelling relationships. Phonics instruction helps children to use these cues
4 Syntactic Cues:Involve a reader’s knowledge of the grammar or structure of language. This knowledge helps the reader to predict what type of word might appear in a certain place in a sentence. This cueing system also involves an understanding of word order and the use of function words, such as the and an.
5 Semantic CuesInvolve a reader’s knowledge of the world. World knowledge helps the reader use cues in the text to discover the meaning of a word that fits into a specific place in a particular sentence. Readers use their semantic knowledge to determine whether a text makes sense.
6 10 Important Research Findings About Phonics phonics instruction can help all children learn to readDo it earlyKeep it simpleExcept in cases of diagnosed individual need, complete instruction by the end of second grade.explicit phonics instruction is more beneficial than implicit instruction
7 Continuedmost poor readers have weak phonics skills and a strategy imbalancephonics knowledge has a powerful effect on decoding abilityWords can be stored in working memory for only a short period of time. Slow decoding can result is some words “decaying” before a meaningful chunk of text can be processed.Devoting large amounts of mental energy to decoding leaves less mental energy for developing comprehension.
8 good decoders rely less on context clues than poor decoders the reading process relies on a reader’s attention to each letter in a wordphonemic awareness is necessary for phonics instruction to be effectivephonics instruction improves spelling ability
9 Continueda teacher’s knowledge of phonics affects his or her ability of teach phonicsit is possible to overdo phonics instruction
10 Stages of Reading Intermediate Reader (Grades 3 to 8) Emergent Reader (Pre-K to middle of 1)EmergentBeginning Reader (K to middle of 2)Letter Name-AlphabeticTransitional Reader (Grade 1 to middle of 4)Within Word PatterIntermediate Reader (Grades 3 to 8)Syllables and AffixesAdvanced Reader (Grades 5 to 12)Derivational Relations
11 Alphabet Recognition Phonemic Awareness knowing the names of the letters and the sounds they representPhonemic Awarenessunderstanding that a word is made up of sounds and the ability to manipulate sounds in spoken words
12 Phonemic AwarenessIs the understanding or insight that a word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. Each of these sounds is called a phoneme. This awareness includes the ability to pick out and manipulate sounds in spoken words.
13 Importance of phonemic awareness It is needed in order to associate sounds with letters and manipulate sounds to blend words or segment words.Phonemic awareness training provides the foundation on which phonics instruction is builtChildren must be able to segment and auditorily discriminate /s/ in the words sit, sand, and sock before it makes sense to them that the letter s stands for this sound in these written words“Phonemic awareness is both a prerequisite for and a consequence of learning to read.” (Yopp, 19912)
14 Keep in mind: don’t stress written words or letters keep the tone fun and informalmonitor each child’s progressmodel, model, modelkeep assessing phonemic awarenessprovide lots and lots of language experiences.
15 The Concepts of PrintKnowing the difference between words and non-wordsknow that print is print no matter what form it appears in.know that print can appear by itself or with picturesunderstand that print corresponds to speech word for wordunderstand the purpose of the empty space between wordsunderstand that words are read from left to right on a pageunderstand that lines of text are read from top to bottom on a pagecan identify the front of a book and a page in it
16 The Language of Instruction tracking print can help children understand the concept of “word”using sentence strips and pocket charts to have children match sentences with a give text can develop sense of “sentence”certain activities, especially multisensory ones, can help children understand the concept of “beginning, middle, and end.”
17 Sensible Sequencing teach children letter names first put a new spin on a classic songteach the shapes and sounds of letterstailor your letter lessons to students’ needshelp children to see differences and similaritiesprovide support for children having difficulty discriminating lettersprovide letter writing practice (copying and tracing are okay too)use key words and pictures when introducing sound-spelling relationshipsmultisensory activitiesread many alphabet books