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Chapter 6—Phonics Kendra McLaren Doug McLaren

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1 Chapter 6—Phonics Kendra McLaren Doug McLaren
The aim of phonic instruction is to help children acquire alphabetic knowledge and use it to read and spell words. -EHRI 2004 Kendra McLaren Doug McLaren

2 Table of Contents What? Why? When? How? Conclusion Slides 3-7 Slide 8
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3 Quality Phonic Instruction
Understand Alphabetical Principles Ability to decode words Incorporate Phonemic Awareness Introduce individual sounds and spellings Provide Sufficient Reading Practice Learning to read words Automatic Word Recognition Decode words quickly Part of Comprehensive Reading Program Phonics need to be used with vocabulary and comprehension Table of Contents

4 Approaches to Quality Insruction
Synthetic Letters → Sounds → Recognizable Word Analogy Using rimes of familiar words to identify and learn new words with the same rime Analytic Using medial sound of familiar words to identify and learn new words with same medial sound Embedded Using context, pictures, familiar word parts, and first/last letters of words Table of Contents

5 Instructional Techniques
Sequence for Teaching Phonics Single consonants & short vowels Consonant digraphs Long vowels with silent e (CVCe) Long vowels at end of words/syllables Y as a vowel R control vowels Silent consonants Vowel digraphs Variant vowel digraphs and dipthongs MODEL LEAD CHECK Presentation Techniques Corrective Feedback Monitor Students Pace Students Signal Students Table of Contents

6 Decoding d d o d o g Blending Routines pp 181-182 Sound by Sound
Continuous Whole Word Spelling Focused d d o d o g Table of Contents

7 Word Work Word Sorting Elkonin Boxes Word Building Dictation
Calling attention to word elements pp 188 Elkonin Boxes Segment words into sounds (manipulative) Word Building Experiment changing one letter of a word Dictation Sound by sound or whole word Table of Contents

8 Phonics is a means to aid in fluent reading and writing.
Why Phonics? English is an alphabetic language; thus, knowing how written letters represent spoken sounds gives readers a systematic method of reading unfamiliar words when they are encountered in text. Phonics is a means to aid in fluent reading and writing. Table of Contents

9 When to Teach Phonics should be implemented during Kindergarten and 1st Grade when it exerts the greatest impact. Use frequent assessment to ensure that phonic instruction is appropriate. Phonic instruction should change as students’ skills develop. When older students do not receive phonic instruction, they struggle greatly. Remediation is much more difficult than early instruction. Table of Contents

10 Phonic Instruction Letter-Sound Strategy Review
Review with students that some letter names can help to learn the letter sounds. Exceptions to this are: h, y, w. Using pictures is a great way to learn these letters. Teach/Model 1.Connect picture to letter sound 2. Copy picture 3. Trace letter and make into picture Write letter and connect to picture name For example a house for the letter h. Follow-Up Before introducing a new sound, follow the same steps as a review. Table of Contents

11 two letters making one sound
Phonic Instruction Consonant Digraphs two letters making one sound Phonemic Awareness-display picture card with target sound Teach/Model-print letters on board, say letters, model sound, students repeat Guided Practice-teacher says words with digraphs, students discriminate initial/final sounds of words Word Work-students use picture cards to discriminate initial/final sounds Sound/Spelling-students identify sounds from digraph chart Short Vowels Phonemic Awareness-students identify how many sounds are in spoken words Teach/Model-print vowel on board, say letter, model sounds, students repeat Guided Practice-teacher says words with vowel sound, students discriminate initial/medial sound of words Word/Work-students use picture cards to discriminate initial/medial sounds Sound/Spelling-students identify vowel sounds from letter chart Table of Contents

12 Phonic Instruction CCVC CVC Consonant Vowel Consonant
Phonemic Awareness-matching letter cards to teacher led pictures for initial sound Teach/Model-model/lead/check sound by sound blending Word Work-Elkonin Boxes with letters Example: m-a-p Teachers says word, we all identify sounds in word, teacher puts m in first box as sound is recognized by students; repeat with remaining sounds/letters CCVC Consonant Consonant Vowel Consonant Phonemic Awareness-utilize ‘Say-It/Move-It’ boards to practice blending Teach/Model-model/lead/check continuous blending Word Work-sound by sound dictation for automaticity using white boards (print words) Example: s-l-a-m Teacher says words, we all blend word, students write word, we all say and spell word Table of Contents

13 Consonant Vowel Consonant followed by final e
Phonic Instruction CVCe Consonant Vowel Consonant followed by final e Phonemic Awareness-use picture cards to identify if word has long or short vowel sound Teach/Model-mode/lead/check whole word blending Word Work-students build words on white board then change one consonant to make new word (vowel/final e stays same) Example: mate→ make→ male→ sale→ save Vowel Combinations Phonemic Awareness-use letter cards to show relationship between the letter name and vowel sound in words Introduce-vowel combination Teach/Model-model/lead/check spelling-focused blending Word Work-whole word dictation Example: teacher says word, students repeat, we all blend word, students print word, teacher writes word on board Table of Contents

14 Phonic Instruction Phonograms Nonlinguistic term for rime
Phonemic Awareness-students substitute one sound for another to make new word (sock-lock) Introduce-write on board and describe Onset-Rime Blending-use magnetic letters to identify letter patterns (might-sight) Word Work-students select phonogram and build as many words as they can by adding onset to phonogram Reading Decodable Text Books or passages where most words are decodable Irregular Words-review previously taught irregular words Example: Introduce book-identify title, author, illustrator and browse book Read one page at a time as a whole group (whisper or choral read) Students take turns reading Table of Contents

15 Conclusion Phonic instruction is vital to help students learn to read and spell words. Introduce to young students. Focus should be on Kindergarten and 1st Grade. Model, lead, and check to ensure instruction is appropriate and students are progressing. Phonic instruction does not need to be boring. Keep it brisk and to the point. Make it fun for the teacher and the students. Table of Contents

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