Presentation on theme: "African Governments Kenya, South Africa & Sudan"— Presentation transcript:
1 African Governments Kenya, South Africa & Sudan SS7CG2aThe structure of modern government in Africa
2 IMPORTANT VOCABULARY PLEASE WRITE THESE DOWN: Republic ~Involves the government using and abiding by the constitution heavily. Personal rights are respected and cannot be taken away.Constitutional republic ~a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people, and must govern according to existing constitutional law. Also, powers are separated. (Ex. U.S.A.)Head of state(H.O.S)~ the chief public representative of a country who may also be the head of government (President, Prime Minister, etc.)Head of Government (H.O.G) ~ is the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the governmentPresident~ chief executive officer of a government; also the head of state.Personal freedoms~ freedom of expression, freedom of movement, freedom of press, etc...
3 3 main ways governments distribute, or share, power . . . federalunitaryconfederation
4 UNITARY GOVERNMENTDefinition: Central government holds power and shares with regional (if they want)Central AuthorityRegional Authority
5 FEDERAL GOVERNMENTDefinition: power is SHARED between central government and regional governmentsRegional AuthorityCentral Authority
6 Definition: Regional has MORE power and shares w/central CONFEDERAL GOVERNMENTDefinition: Regional has MORE power and shares w/centralCentral AuthorityRegional Authority
7 rule by one OLIGARCHIC DEMOCRATIC rule by all AUTOCRATICrule by oneOLIGARCHICrule by the fewDEMOCRATICrule by all
8 Kenya South Africa Sudan Country Type of Govt Head of State/Head of Government (HOS, HOG)Who Can Vote?Degree of Personal Freedom for CitizensYear of Independencefrom Colonial RuleKenyaRepublicwith a one house National AssemblyPresident =HOSPrime Minister = HOG18 and olderLimited personal freedoms (press, speech, criticism of govt)1963 from Great BritainSouthAfricaRepublic with a 2 house National AssemblyPresident is HOS and is elected by National Assembly18 and older *vote on members of National Assembly*Numerous personal freedoms, similar to USA1910 From Great Britain, but apartheid did not end until 1994Sudan“republic”But run by a Dictator as presidentPresident/Dictator Omar al-Bashir has all powerWhen there will be elections, 17 and olderVERY LIMITED due to dictator control1956 from Egypt and Great Britain
10 Republic, with one-house legislature called the National Assembly CountryType of GovernmentRepublic of KenyaRepublic, with one-house legislature called the National Assembly
11 prime minister was established. CountryHead of StateRepublic of KenyaKenya had a presidential democracy until the election of The position ofprime minister was established.NOW they have a President=Head of StatePM=Head of Govt.
12 All citizens 18 years of age or older can vote CountryWho Can VoteRepublic of KenyaAll citizens 18 years of age or older can vote
13 Degree of Personal Freedom for Citizens CountryDegree of Personal Freedom for CitizensRepublic of KenyaFreedoms are written into constitution but gov’t is dominated by the president. There have been improvements in rights recently. Limited freedom of speech and press and criticism of govt
14 In 1963 from Great Britain Republic of Kenya CountryType of GovernmentHead of StateWho Can VoteDegree of Personal Freedom for CitizensYear of Independence from Colonial RuleRepublic of KenyaRepublic, with one-house legislature called the National AssemblyKenya had a presidential form ofdemocracy until the election of The position ofprime minister was established.President=Chief of StatePM=Head of Govt.All citizens 18 years of age or older can voteFreedoms are written in theconstitution. The new constitutionguaranteed many freedoms:freedom ofexpression, freedom of movement, andfreedom from discriminationIn 1963 from Great Britain
15 Checking for understanding- Stand up or sit down If you think the statement below is true STAND UP, if you think it is FALSE, sit down!Kenya had a prime minister and a president prior to a recent March 2013 election.
17 Republic, with two-house National Assembly (parliamentary) CountryType of GovernmentRepublic of South AfricaRepublic, with two-house National Assembly (parliamentary)
18 President elected by the National Assembly (legislature) CountryType of GovernmentHead of StateRepublic of South AfricaRepublic, with two-house National AssemblyPresident elected by the National Assembly (legislature)Presidentanswers to the National Assembly and mayOnly serve two five year terms.
19 All citizens 18 years of age or older can vote CountryType of GovernmentHead of StateWho Can VoteRepublic of South AfricaRepublic, with two-house National AssemblyPresident elected by the National AssemblyAll citizens 18 years of age or older can vote
20 Degree of Personal Freedom for Citizens CountryDegree of Personal Freedom for CitizensRepublic of South AfricaPersonal Freedoms are numerous.The constitution ensures equality beforethe law and prohibits discrimination.It guarantees the right to life, privacy,property, freedom, and security of theperson, and freedom of speech, religion,assembly and association.It prohibits slavery and forced labor.
21 Year of Independence from Colonial Rule CountryYear of Independence from Colonial RuleRepublic of South AfricaSouth Africa became independent from Great Britain in The racially segregated government ended in 1994 when majority rule was established.
22 Checking for Understanding Grab a partner (someone at your table)If you and your partner think the statement is true, FACE each other. If you and your partner think it’s false, turn your backs to each other!SOUTH AFRICA’S president can serve 3 FIVE YEAR terms.
24 CountryType of GovernmentRepublic of SudanFederal republic ruled by the National Congress Party (NCP), which seized power by military coup in 1989*President is a dictator*
25 President and Head of State lead the National Congress Party. CountryType of GovernmentHead of StateRepublic of SudanA government of national unity was formed with a National Legislature. The government is dominated by the National Congress Party howeverPresident and Head of State lead the National Congress Party.Current president, Omar al Bashir is considered a dictator
26 President and Head of State lead the National Congress Party. CountryType of GovernmentHead of StateWho Can VoteRepublic of SudanA government of national unity was formed with a National Legislature. The government is dominated by the National Congress Party howeverPresident and Head of State lead the National Congress Party.All citizens 17 years of age or older can vote
27 Degree of Personal Freedom for Citizens CountryDegree of Personal Freedom for CitizensRepublic of SudanCitizens of Sudan have few real constitutional freedoms unless they are associated with the National Congress Party. Most government position are appointed. Elections are supposed to be held in the near future.
28 Year of Independence from Colonial Rule CountryYear of Independence from Colonial RuleRepublic of SudanSudan became independent of Egypt and Great Britain in 1956
29 A little background information on Sudan: Number #1 on the list of worst dictators is Sudan’s current president, al Bashir.Taking power in 1989, al Bashir and his regime abolished the existing government, suspended the Constitution, restricted freedom of press, and arrested prominent politicians.The citizens DID NOT vote for al Bashir; he used his military force to become dictator
31 Where is South Sudan?East-Central Africa, south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of EthiopiaSouth Sudan is a republicCapital city is called Juba
32 What happened?The people who live in the region of South Sudan have wanted to be separated for years (since 1800’s)They do not follow IslamThey do not get along with the other Sudanese peopleWhen Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was thought that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the governmentHowever, the Arab government did not follow its promises
33 2 Sudanese Civil Wars This led to a revolt st civil warnd civil warAround 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and droughtAround 5 million people have been displaced or become refugees
34 Peace Talks?Peace talks resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement -signed in January 2005As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of independenceThese 6 years were to be followed by a vote on a final statusThe result of the vote (held in January 2011) was a vote of 98% in favor of secessionIndependence was attained on July 9, 2011
35 What now? South Sudan is rich in oil reserves However, it is landlocked and there is not much industry and growthWidespread povertyGovt spends a lot of money to maintain a large army