Presentation on theme: "African Governments 7 th Grade Social Studies. Who has the POWER? What is a government? A group of people that have the power to make the laws. Governments."— Presentation transcript:
Who has the POWER? What is a government? A group of people that have the power to make the laws. Governments distribute or give power in one of three ways: Unitary, Confederation and Federal.
Unitary- government power is held by one central authority-Morocco and Ghana Confederation-associated states that agree to work together-South Africa and Uganda Federal –power is divided by one central government and regional authorities-Nigeria and Ethiopia. Distribution of Power
Who can Participate??? Autocratic-one leader has all the power and the people have none! Oligarchic-control is in the hands or two or more people- the people have no power. Democratic-the people hold the power and vote for leaders who represent them.
Two Types of Democracy Parliamentary Democracy Legislature controls the power. The head of the government is a prime minister. Both the legislature and Prime Minister are elected by the people. Example: South Africa Presidential The executive and legislative branches are separate bodies elected by the people. Each branch has equal power. The head of the government is the president. Example: Kenya
Republic Constitutional Republic Three branches like the United States Kenya Parliamentary Democracy with President Three branches-executive, legislative and judicial Republic of South Africa Presidential System in the making New state up nation a work in progress South Sudan new nation 2011 Comparing Governments: Africa
Governments Defined Parliamentary Democracy- South Africa The political party with the most members in the National Assembly selects the President. This is the major difference between a Presidential Democracy and a Parliamentary Democracy! Parliamentary Democracy – legislature chooses the executive leader Presidential Democracy- Kenya A presidential system is a republic system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Is It Really a Republic??? There are many nations in Africa that call themselves Republics-like the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of them ARE NOT REAL DEMOCRACIES. They are frequently military dictatorships or led by rebel groups that fight for years.
How did the South Sudan Develop? The Sudan is made up of two major groups: Arabs and Black African farmers. The Arabs dominated the government and wanted the farmers to leave. There was oil in the farm land. The government hired mercenaries to torment the farmers and for years they killed and burned out the farmers. Read Article
Education in Africa Kenya Education made available in 2003. Only half of the children attend school, there is a shortage of teachers, books and money. Boys go to school more often than girls-they are needed at home. Literacy rate: boys-91%, girls-79% Sudan Civil war has impacted education. Education is free in the urban areas for 8 years. More boys than girls attend. Literacy rate: boys-72%, girls-50% Shortage of teachers, money and supplies Conflict Reduces $$$ for education More boys go to school than girls
Government Stability Many African governments are in the hands of dishonest and corrupt leaders. There are many civil wars and that affect how the people live. Most of the resources like gold and diamonds are used to pay for wars. The people are not provided with health care, education, services. The color of conflicts
Government Stability???? These nations do not have a developed infrastructure. Famine, starvation and medical issues like AIDS and malaria cannot be helped. 70% of Sub-Saharan Africa is HIV positive. Life expectancy is below age 50% Political Instability Index Political Instability Index
This list of nations is able to make deductions on how stable a government is using several indicators. They are about 90% accurate. How do they predict? History of nation/conflicts Corruption and type of government today Ethnic problems Trust of government Infant Mortality Rate Status of minorities Economic growth Independence date