Presentation on theme: "Research Methods AP Psych – Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method"— Presentation transcript:
1 Research Methods AP Psych – Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method Alice F. ShortHilliard Davidson High School
2 Psychology Majors 2 Most Commonly Required Classes: ResearchStatisticsA SHORT Time to PonderWhy would these be the two most required classes for psychology majors across the country?
3 Chapter Preview Psychology’s Scientific Method Types of Psychological ResearchResearch Samples and SettingsAnalyzing and Interpreting DataConducting Ethical ResearchThinking Critically About ResearchScientific Method and Health and Wellness
4 A SHORT Time to Ponder As a society, do we value critical thinking? Is critical thinking uncomfortable sometimes?
5 Scientific Method Science is a method. (It’s a VERB) It’s not what you study, but how you study it.any objective person can use the scientific methodobserve some phenomenonformulate hypothesis and predictionstest through empirical researchdraw conclusionsevaluate the theory
7 Scientific Method – 2. Hypothesize Step 2: Formulate hypotheses and predictionstestable predictionderived from theory
8 Scientific Method – 3. Research Step 3: Test through empirical researchoperational definition of variablesanalyze data using statistical procedures
9 Scientific Method – 4. Conclusions Step 4: Draw conclusionsreplication of results → reliabilityIf other people cannot replicate your study, then your result are unreliable.What could this potentially mean for your study? (Think critically!)
10 Scientific Method – 5. Evaluate Step 5: Evaluate the theorychange the theory?peer review and publicationpublish or perishmeta-analysis – method by which researchers combine results across studies to establish the strength of an effecttheory = broad umbrella category which can either be supported or refuted by testable hypotheses
11 Descriptive Research Goal: Describing a phenomenon observationsurveys and interviewscase studiesDescriptive research does not answer questions about how and why things are the way they are
12 Correlational Research Goal: Identify relationships (does not mean there is a causal relationships)correlation coefficient: r-1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.00strength of relationship: magnitudedirection of relationship: + / -
15 Correlational Research Positive Correlationsfactors vary in same direction↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓Negative Correlationsfactors vary in opposite direction↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓
16 Correlation and Causation correlation does not equal causationthird variable problemWhy would some people not WANT to consider a third variable problem?longitudinal design
17 Experimental Research Goal: Determine causationrandom assignment – extremely important in experimental designindependent variable(s) – manipulationdependent variable(s) – measurementAll of these vocabulary terms are very important to KNOW!
18 Experimental Research Experimental Groupindependent variable is manipulatedControl Grouptreated equally, except no manipulation of independent variable
19 Validity External Validity Internal Validity representative of real world issues?do results generalize to the real world?Internal Validityare dependent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation?bias? logical errors?
20 Bias and Expectations experimenter bias demand characteristics research participant biasplacebo effectdouble-blind experiment
21 Example of Experimental Research: Self Esteem Baumeister’s research findings:“high self esteem leads to aggression”Donnellan & Trzesniewski’s research findings:“low self esteem leads to aggression”What accounts for these different findings?lab-only aggression?type of self esteem?
22 Applying Different Research Methods to the Same Phenomenon Example: Election of President Barack ObamaPossible Research Methods:observationsurvey and interviewcase studiescorrelational researchexperimental research
23 Research Sample Population Sample Representative Sample Random Sample entire group about whom conclusion drawnSampleportion of population actually observedRepresentative Samplecharacteristics similar to populationopposite of “biased sample”Random Sampleequal chance of being selected
24 Research Settings “Artificial” world – laboratory setting controlled settingReal world - natural settingnaturalistic observationDISCUSSION: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each setting?
25 Analyzing and Interpreting Data Statisticsmathematical methods used to report dataDescriptive Statisticsdescribe and summarize dataMeasures of Central TendencymeanmedianmodeMeasures of Dispersionrangestandard deviationInferential Statisticsdraw conclusions about datadoes data confirm the hypothesis?statistical significanceα = 0.05 (confidence level)bridge between sample and population
26 A SHORT Time to PonderWhat is the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics?
27 Research Ethics research participants have rights Institutional Review Board (IRB)APA Guidelinesinformed consentconfidentialitydebriefingdeception
28 Animal Research in Psychology animal research has benefited humansused by 5% of researchersrats and mice used 90% of timestandards of care in animal researchhousingfeedingpsychological and physical well being
29 Reality TV – Ethical Issues? informed consent?Deception?psychological and/or physical risk?is the behavior real?DISCUSSION: What do YOU think?
30 A Wise Consumer… is skeptical yet open-minded! Cautionsexercise caution in applying group trends to individual experienceavoid overgeneralizing resultslook for converging evidencequestion causal inferencesconsider the source
31 Expressive Writing and Health Results of study on suicide v. accidental deathdifferent survivor healthdifferent survivor rate of talking about the lossResults lead to study on writingthose assigned to write about a trauma experienced better physical health
32 Chapter Summary Explain what makes psychology a science. Discuss common research settings and the main types of research that are used in psychology.Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.Discuss some challenges that involve ethics, bias, and information.Discuss scientific studies on the effect of writing about ones trauma.
33 Chapter Summary Steps of the Scientific Method observehypothesizeresearchconcludeevaluateResearch Methods and Settingsdescriptive, correlational, and experimental studies conducted in natural settings or the lab
34 Chapter Summary Data Analysis and Interpretation descriptive and inferential statisticsChallenges: Research Ethics and BiasAPA guidelines and the IRBExpressive Writing and Health and Wellnessbenefits of writing about trauma