Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 3 Psychology 7e in Modules.
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1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 3 Psychology 7e in Modules
2 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions DescriptionThe Case StudyThe SurveyNaturalistic ObservationCorrelationCorrelation and CausationIllusory CorrelationPerceiving Order in Random Events
3 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions ExperimentationExploring Cause and EffectEvaluating TherapiesIndependent and Dependent VariablesStatistical ReasoningDescribing DataMaking Inferences
4 Is language uniquely human? Descriptive MethodsCase StudyA technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.Is language uniquely human?Advantage: tremendous amount of detail.Disadvantage: cannot apply to others.Famous case study: Phineas GageOBJECTIVE 3-1| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in studying behavior and mental processes.Psychology 7e in Modules
5 SurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people.OBJECTIVE 3-2| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.Psychology 7e in Modules
6 Wording can change the results of a survey. Wording EffectWording can change the results of a survey.Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
7 False Consensus Effect SurveyFalse Consensus EffectA tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
8 Survey Population – all the cases in a group Random Sampling From a population, if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased).The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
9 Random Sampling from Population LO 1.9 Case studies and surveysINFERENCEPOPULATIONSAMPLE
10 Naturalistic and laboratory settings Descriptive MethodsNaturalistic observation – watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment.Major Advantage:Realistic picture of behavior.Disadvantages:Observer effect - tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed.Participant observation - a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed (to reduce observer effect).
11 Naturalistic and laboratory settings Descriptive MethodsLaboratory observation – watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting.Advantages:Control over environment.Allows use of specialized equipment.Disadvantage:Artificial situation that may result in artificial behavior.Descriptive methods lead to the formation of testable hypotheses.Menu
12 (positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37OBJECTIVE 3-4| Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction.Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Psychology 7e in Modules
13 Finding Relationships Correlational techniqueCorrelation coefficient ranges from 0 to 1.00Closer to 1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables.No correlation = 0.0.Perfect correlation = ORPositive correlation – variables are related in the same direction.As one increases, the other increases; as one decreases, the other decreases.Negative correlation – variables are related in opposite direction.As one increases, the other decreases.CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION!!!Menu
14 ScatterplotsPerfect positivecorrelation (+1.00)Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables.
15 ScatterplotsPerfect negativecorrelation (-1.00)No relationship (0.00)Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, and the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables.
20 Correlation and Causation OBJECTIVE 3-5| Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships.Psychology 7e in Modules
21 Correlation does NOT prove causation LO Correlational techniqueCorrelation does NOT prove causationMenu
22 Correlation Coefficient Interpretation RangeStrength ofRelationshipVery LowLowModerateHigh ModerateHighVery High
23 Disconfirming evidence Illusory CorrelationThe perception of a relationship where none exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.Confirming evidenceDisconfirming evidenceDo notadoptAdoptDo not conceiveConceiveOBJECTIVE 3-6| Describe how people form illusory correlations.Michael Newman Jr./ Photo EditPsychology 7e in Modules
24 Order in Random EventsGiven large number of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco ChronicleOBJECTIVE 3-7| Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random events.Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.Psychology 7e in Modules
25 Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect The backbone of research in psychology.Experiments isolate causes and their effects.OBJECTIVE 3-8| Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect.Psychology 7e in Modules
26 Exploring Cause & Effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us while keeping other factors under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.
27 The ExperimentExperimental approach and termsOperational definition - definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.Independent variable (IV) - variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.Dependent variable (DV) - variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.Definition: Aggressive playIV: Violent TVDV: Aggressive play
28 For example, to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence For example, to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Breast feeding is the independent variable.OBJECTIVE 3-9| Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable.For example, the effect of breast feeding on intelligence - intelligence is the dependent variable.Psychology 7e in Modules
29 Double-blind Procedure Evaluating TherapiesDouble-blind ProcedureIn evaluating drug therapies it is important to keep the patients and experimenter’s assistants blind to which patients got real treatment and which placebo.OBJECTIVE 3-10| Explain why random assignment and double-blind procedure build confidence in research findings.Psychology 7e in Modules
30 Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (Breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.Sometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double-blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter’s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo.Psychology 7e in Modules
31 Random Assignment Experimental Group Test for Differences SAMPLE LO Experimental approach and termsExperimental GroupTest for DifferencesSAMPLEControl GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
32 Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEAre differences due to manipulation or confounding variable (mood)?Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
33 No Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEDifferences due to manipulation, not an extraneous variable because mood randomly determined.Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
34 LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms The ExperimentMenu