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Respiratory Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory Disorders

2 Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura lining of the lungs
Usually occurs in conjunction with pneumonia and other lung infections Symptoms: Sharp, stabbing pain when breathing Dyspnea Fever

3 Thoracentesis Insertion of a needle through the thoracic cavity and into the pleural cavity to drain fluid antibiotics

4 Pneumothorax Collapsed lung
Corrected by putting in a chest tube to reinflate the lung

5 Common Cold Contagious viral respiratory infection
Indirect causes – chilling, fatigue, lack of proper food, and not enough sleep Rx – stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)

6 Bronchitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes Produces excessive mucus May be acute or chronic COPD

7 Bronchitis Acute bronchitis characterized by cough, fever, substernal pain and RALES -rhonchi Chronic bronchitis – middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause

8 Influenza (Flu) Viral infection causing inflammation of the mucus membranes Symptons: Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion Complications: pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media and pleurisy Rx: treat the symptons

9 Pneumonia Infection of the lung Can be caused by bacteria or virus
Alveoli fill with exudate (pus like drainage) Symptons – chest pain, fever, chills, and dyspnea Rx – O2 and antibiotics if caused by bacteria

10 Tuberculosis (TB) Very infectious lung disease
Cause: Myobacterium tuberculosis (a tubercle bacillus) May also affect kidneys, bones, and lymph Tubercles (lesions) form in the lungs

11 Tuberculosis (TB) Symptoms
Cough Low grade fever in the afternoon Weight loss Night sweat INH OR RIFAMPIN DRUGS-FOR ONE YEAR

12 Tuberculosis Diagnosis – Mantous Test (skin test)
If skin test positive – follow up with chest X-ray and sputum sample RX – INH for one year

13 Tuberculosis Game Go to this website and play this computer game about tuberculosis:

14 Diptheria Rare infectious disease Cause – Corynebacterium diphtheria
Prevented by a childhood vaccine Spread by nasal droplets The bacteria release a toxin, which can produce nerve paralysis and heart failure The infection causes a severe sore throat with swollen glands. The patient is infectious for up to 2 weeks and about 1 in 15 patients will die.

15 Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Caused by the Bordetella bacterium Symptoms: Severe coughing attacks that end in a “whooping” sound and dyspnea Childhood vaccine to prevent this disease Can last 6 weeks to several months Coughing attacks worse at night

16 Asthma Inflammatory airway obstruction
Caused by an allergen or psychological stress 5% of Americans have asthma CAN BE EXERCISED INDUCED

17 Asthma Symptoms: Difficulty Exhaling Dyspnea
Wheezing-HIGH PITCHED BREATHING Tightness in chest

18 Asthma Rx: anti-inflammatory drugs and inhaled bronchodilator

19 Silicosis Cause: breathing dust containing silicon dioxide over a long period of time Lungs become fibrosed, reduced ability to expand

20 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Describes chronic lung conditions, especiailly empysema and chronic bronchitis 15 million Americans suffer from COPD 90% attributed to smoking

21 Emphysema Alveoli becomdes dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound/REINFLATE May eventually rupture Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale – froced exhalation required Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2-barrel chested Dyspnea increases as desease progresses.

22 Suddent Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Also known as “crib death” Usually between 2 weeks to 1 year Leading cause of death for children from birth to 1yr. Cause – unknown Rx – sleep monitor

23 Apnea – not breathing Dsypnea – difficult or painful breathing Tachypnea – fast breathing Hyperpnea – exaggerated deep labored breathing as seen after exercise Bradypnea-slow breathing Orthopnea – difficulty breathing in laying flat.sit straight up to breathe Hyperventilation – fast, shallow breathing Rales – noisy , moist breathing-fluid in lungs

24 To Be Continued……….


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