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Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System

2 Parts Lungs Air passages

3 Functions Takes in oxygen Removes carbon dioxide
Body has 4-6 minute supply of oxygen

4 Air Passages Nose 2 nostrils or nares Nasal septum Lined Functions
Divides nose into 2 nasal cavities Lined With mucous membrane with a rich blood supply Functions Warms Moistens Filters

5 Cilia Olfactory Receptor Lacrimal Ducts
Tiny hair-like structures that help move dirt trapped in mucous to the esophagus Olfactory Receptor Receptors for sense of smell Lacrimal Ducts Tear ducts Drain tears from the eye into the nose

6 Olfactory Receptors

7 Sinuses Cavities in the skull that surround the nasal area
Connected to nasal cavities by short ducts Function Warms and moistens air Lined with mucous membrane Provides resonance for the voice

8 Pharynx Throat Lies behind the nasal passages 3 sections Nasopharynx
Oropharynx Laryngopharynx

9 Larynx Voice box Layers of cartilage Contains
Largest is the thyroid cartilage commonly called the Adam's apple Contains Vocal chords Vibrate on exhaled air to produce sound The tongue and lips act on the sound to produce speech Epiglottis Flap of cartilage that closes the larynx during swallowing and prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea

10 Trachea Windpipe Series of “C” shaped cartilage to keep the tube open to the back Divide into the right and left bronchi Continues to divide into smaller bronchioles End in the alveoli Air sacs

11 Alveoli One cell thick and surrounded by capillaries
Look like a cluster of grapes Allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide


13 Surfactant Surfactant
Reduces surface pressure and prevents alveoli from collapsing

14 Exchange of Gases

15 Lungs Right lung 3 lobes Left lung 2 lobes due to the heart

16 Pleura Covered by a double layer sac called the pleura

17 Ventilation Process of breathing Diaphragm Muscle of respiration
Assisted by the intercostal muscles Phases of respiration Inspiration Inhale Expiration Exhale

18 Diaphragm Dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

19 Process of Respiration
Controlled by the medulla oblongata in the brain An increase in amount of CO2 in the blood , increases the rate of respiration Both involuntary and voluntary process

20 Stages of Respiration External Respiration
Exchange of gases between air in the lung and the blood

21 Internal Respiration Exchange of gases between the blood and the cells

22 Cellular Respiration Use of gases to make energy, water and CO2

23 Diseases Asthma Inflammation of airways with increased mucous production and muscle constriction Cause – allergen, exercise, stress, chemical S/S - wheezing, coughing, dyspnea, shortness of breath Tx - bronchodilators, steroids


25 Nebulizer Inhaler

26 Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes
Acute – infection Chronic – longtime exposure to smoking S/S productive cough, dyspnea, fever, chest pain Tx – antibiotics, bronchodilators, oxygen

27 Emphysema

28 Emphysema Non infectious, chronic respiratory condition when walls of alveoli deteriorate and loss elasticity CO2 remains trapped in the alveoli Poor exchange of gases S/S dypnea, feeling of suffocation, barrel chest TX – No cure

29 Epistaxis Nosebleed Congested capillaries bleed
Due to injury, blowing too hard, hypertension TX – pinch nostrils lean forward slightly

30 Influenza Flu Viral infection of the lungs
Spread by respiratory droplet S/S - fever, malaise, chills, cough, sore throat, muscle pain Tx - symptomatic

31 Lung Cancer Leading cause of death of men and women
S/S no symptoms in early stages, later cough hemoptysis Tx – surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy

32 Pneumonia Inflammation or infection of the lungs
Build up of exudates (fluid) in the alveoli S/S cough, chest pain, fever, dyspnea Tx – antibiotics, bed rest, fluids, respiratory therapy, pain medication


34 Rhinitis, Laryngitis, Sinusitis

35 Tuberculosis Infectious lung disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis Can be walled off in a tubercle and become dormant New strains are drug resistant S/S fatigue, fever, night sweats, hemoptysis weight loss, chest pain Tx - several drugs over a period of two years




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