2 The tools of poetryMeter: a poem’s rhythmical pattern, determined by the number of stresses, or beats, in each line.Rhythm: the pattern of beats, or stresses, in spoken or written languageRhyme Scheme: a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem.Indicated by lowercase lettersEach rhyme is assigned a different letter
3 Example of Rhyme Scheme: “Dark hills at evening in the west, aWhere sunset hovers like a sound bOf golden horns that sang to rest aOld bones of warriors underground…” bWe would refer to this asan “abab” rhyme scheme.Use a new letter for every newrhyme sound in a poem.
4 The tools of poetryStanza: a formal division of lines in a poem, considered as a unit.Many poems are divided into stanzas that are separated by spaces.Stanzas often work like paragraphsEach stanza states and develops a single main idea
5 Stanza (continued)A 2-line stanza is called a couplet.A 4-line stanza is called a quatrain.A 6-line stanza is called a sestet.An 8-line stanza is called an octave.Refrain: a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
6 Forms of Poetry Ballad: a songlike poem that tells a story, often dealing with adventure or romance.Often written in 4-6 line stanzasHave regular rhythms and rhyme schemesOften features a refrain
7 Forms of PoetryLyric Poem: a short, highly musical poem that expresses the observations and feelings of a single speakerEpic Poem: a long poem that tells of the adventures of one or more great heroes.An epic is written in a dignified, formal style and often demonstrates the values that are important to a specific culture.
8 Forms of Poetry Haiku: a 3-line Japanese verse form. It has a pattern, meaning the first and third lines have 5 syllables and the second line has seven syllables.Uses vivid images to create a single picture, generally of a scene from nature
9 Forms of Poetry Limerick: a short, humorous, narrative poem Has 5 lines, with an aabba rhyme schemeHas a specific rhythmThe a lines match in lengthThe b lines match in length, but are shorter than the a lines
10 Forms of PoetryFree Verse Poem: poetry not written in a regular rhythmic pattern, or meter.May contain lines of any length or with any number of beats.Blank Verse Poem: poetry written in unrhymed, iambic pentameterMost associated with Shakespeare’s plays.
11 Forms of PoetryConcrete Poem: a poem with a shape that suggests its subject.The poet arranges the letters, punctuation, and lines to create a picture on the pageFound Poem: a poem built by taking words or phrases from another text, such as a book or newpaper article.To create, you may drop words from the original text, but you cannot add any words.