Presentation on theme: "Poetry Terms. The tools of poetry Meter : a poem’s rhythmical pattern, determined by the number of stresses, or beats, in each line. Rhythm : the pattern."— Presentation transcript:
The tools of poetry Meter : a poem’s rhythmical pattern, determined by the number of stresses, or beats, in each line. Rhythm : the pattern of beats, or stresses, in spoken or written language Rhyme Scheme : a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem. –Indicated by lowercase letters –Each rhyme is assigned a different letter
Example of Rhyme Scheme : “Dark hills at evening in the west,a Where sunset hovers like a soundb Of golden horns that sang to resta Old bones of warriors underground…” b We would refer to this as an “abab” rhyme scheme. Use a new letter for every new rhyme sound in a poem.
– Melody: name given to the pleasing sounds in music or in poetry – Cadence : inflection and rhythmic flow – Assonance: occurs when a sound is repeated in the interior of words M EL odyRep EL lingF EL low – Consonance: the repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession AlliterationAlliteration is a special form of consonance EX. " p i tt er p a tt er" "all m a mm als na m ed Sa m are cla mm y".
Rhyme – Important Forms – Imperfect Rhyme: the eye tells you a word should rhyme, but the spoken words do not (EX. stove & glove) – Near Rhyme : the words almost rhyme, but the match is not exact –(Ex. Line & time) Internal Rhyme: a word in the interior of the line rhymes with word at the end of a line, or when two or more interior words rhyme. – Ex. Here we go to the show or We go and show our tickets
End-stop: the end of the line coincides with the end of a grammatical unit –Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date. (Shakespeare, Sonnet 18) Enjambment: the continuation of a sentence or clause over a line-break –It is a beauteous evening, calm and free, The holy time is quiet as a Nun Breathless with adoration; the broad sun Is sinking down in its tranquillity. (Wordsworth) Caesura : a strong pause within a line –In most cases, caesura is indicated by punctuation marks which cause a pause in speech; however, punctuation is not necessary for a caesura to occur. To err is human; to forgive, divine.
Stanza : a formal division of lines in a poem, considered as a unit. –Many poems are divided into stanzas that are separated by spaces. –Stanzas often work like paragraphs Each stanza states and develops a single main idea
Stanza (continued) –A 2-line stanza is called a couplet. –A 3-line stanza is called a tercet –A 4-line stanza is called a quatrain. –A 5-line stanza is called a cinquain. –A 6-line stanza is called a sestet. –An 8-line stanza is called an octave. Refrain : a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
Antithesis Places opposites together to make the feature of each seem more intense
Apostrophe Addressing someone or something that is absent, abstract, or inanimate
Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration. It is often called overstatement, but it must be an exaggerated overstatement
Litotes (Understatement Understatement is stating an extreme reduction of the evident value or amount Ex. That car was worth a pretty penny.
Metonymy Using a word closely associated with the one intended. Example – Mom warmed the rolls. (Did she actually do the warming?) Non-Example –Mom punished me for not cleaning my room (Yeah, she probably did actually punish you.)
Synechdoche Using a part of something to represent the entire thing, usually the most affected (or the first) part. Example –She knew her ABCs. (And she probably knew about D,E,F, and the rest of the alphabet!) Non-Example –The glove was on his left hand. (That’s it. Only on the left hand.)
Types of Poetry Throughout the unit, we will be discussing particular forms of poetry, which can be broken into two broad categories: –Narrative –Lyric What separates poetry from prose is the arrangement of carefully chosen words into verses.