4 Food Safety DNA insertion- uncontrolled event Alterations in DNA may interfere with the regulation and expression of certain genesToxinsAllergensNutritional changeSuch faulty insertions are unique to each insertional event, and thus it is practically impossible to search for every possible effect that a gene insertion might have.Mamalian host metabolism can be altered by taking in insect resistant plants that target GI tract enzymesSafeguards against this potential risk include avoiding transferring genes from the most commonly allergenic foods, including fish,shellfish, eggs, milk, soy, wheat, peanuts, and tree nuts. Use of genetic material from these sources would requireextensive testing to prove the absence of allergenicityChange in nutritional contentthey could alter the cellular metabolism of the food-producing organism in unintended and unanticipated ways, and in turn, these alterations in metabolism could cause allergens or toxins to be produced in the food. Another possibility is that, as a result of these alterations in metabolism, the food-producing organism might fail to make some important vitamin or nutrient.Level of allergen or toxin production is also impBT toxins
5 Environmental Concerns Escaping & spreading the engineered gene in the natural gene flow processInsect resistant crops- Non-specificthreatening the wild type crop species for competition.disturb the ecosystem, posing a serious concern for the integrity of biodiversity.
6 Ethical and Social Issues Prohibited animal-derived genes in plant foodsEcosystem disruption
7 Safety AssessmentConducted under ground rules given by WHO, FAO & OECDSafety testing:Toxicological testingAllergenicity studiesNutritional analysisEnvironment: field allocation preventing horizontal gene transferEthical concerns: labeling foods contai-ning animal-derived genes( Food and Agricultural Organization) (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)follows the basic concepts of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.Any health hazards, if suspected under any circumstances in the finished product are labeled so that the consumer is aware of any potential risks of allergies and anaphylaxis, and of the nutritional charecteristics if they vary from the unengineered product.Labeling until longterm safety is established
8 Application of Recombinant DNA Technology in Agriculture Adeena Shafique
9 INTRODUCTIONApplication of recombinant DNA technology has primarily helped in producing three major types of transgenic plant having improved performances. These are: (1) Development of stress tolerant plants (2) Development of plants having improved yield (3) Transgenic plants as a source of biopharmaceuticals
10 Development of stress tolerant plant Plant resistant to environmental stressHerbicide Resistant plantInsect resistant plantDisease resistance plant
11 Plants resistant to Environmental stress Abiotic stresses: Drought, Heat, Cold, Too salty or acidic soilsGenetically modified Tomato and Canola tolerate very high salt levels.Maize and papaya resistant to aluminum.
12 Herbicide Resistant Plants Herbicide-RoundupTM contains glyphosate.Glyphosate kills many plants.It binds to the plant enzyme EPSP synthase.rDNA technology modified EPSP gene.Soybean resistant to glyphosate.rDNA technology
13 Insect resistant plants Farmers can use insecticides but these are harmful for human health.Bt genes from Bacillus thuringiensis are used.Transgenic crops (e.g. cotton, rice, maize, potato, brinjal, cauliflower, cabbage etc.) with Bt genes have been developed and such transgenic varieties proved effective in controlling the insect pests.
14 Disease resistant plants Plants are susceptible to viral, bacterial, fungal diseases.Genes encoding viral coat protein expressed in plants. Protects the plant from subsequent infection.TMV coat protein gene expressed in tobacco plant protected it from TMV infection.
15 Development of plants having increased quality of plant products Golden Rice
16 Increase in quality of plant products Golden rice containing beta carotene to overcome vitamin A deficiency in regions where rice is the staple foodCanola containing high levels of oleic acidsTomatoes which do not rot in room temperatureOther vegetables and fruits with delayed ripening as well as modified flavor characteristics
17 Transgenic plant as a source of bio pharmaceuticals Edible vaccines- A reality in the future?!Expression of antigenic proteins in crops like banana and tomato.Great advantages- avoiding storage problems, easy delivery system, low cost.