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GMO Genetically Modified Organism. gy-environment/a-gray-area-in-regulation-of- genetically-modified-crops.html?_r=0.

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Presentation on theme: "GMO Genetically Modified Organism. gy-environment/a-gray-area-in-regulation-of- genetically-modified-crops.html?_r=0."— Presentation transcript:

1 GMO Genetically Modified Organism

2 gy-environment/a-gray-area-in-regulation-of- genetically-modified-crops.html?_r=0 gy-environment/a-gray-area-in-regulation-of- genetically-modified-crops.html?_r=0

3 news/11028617/GM-fruit-flies-could-be-released- into-the-wild.html news/11028617/GM-fruit-flies-could-be-released- into-the-wild.html

4 t-evolves-to-eat-poisonous-corn t-evolves-to-eat-poisonous-corn

5 GMO Genetically Modified Organism Genetic material altered in a way that doesn't occur in nature Biological and medical research Pharmaceutical drugs Experimental medicine Agriculture o Increased needs of food o Improve quality

6 GM Foods Create plants with exact traits Isolate a gene responsible for drought tolerance and insert into different plant Genes from non-plant organisms have been introduced into plants o Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produces crystal protein toxic to caterpillars o Bt gene inserted into corn to produce the crystal protein

7 Bacillus thuringeinsis Bacteria Bt discovered in 1901 by Japanese microbiologist Crystal protein that binds to gut of certain insects Bt spray developed in 1938 in France Bt-modified crops first used in 1996 o Corn, cotton, and potato

8 Advantages Insect and disease resistance Reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides o Bt corn controls corn earworm and rootworm without pesticides o Bt cotton controls bollworm

9 Advantages Herbicide resistance Crops immune to Round-up o Round-up Ready trademark One application of Round-up to control weeds o Significant increase in Round-up o Traces found in the environment (US Geological Survey)

10 Advantages Environmental tolerance Cold o An antifreeze gene from cold water fish Tobacco and potato Drought Saline

11 Advantages Nutrition Increase nutritional value o “Golden” rice with increased beta carotene

12 Golden Rice 250 million people suffer from vitamin A deficiency Rice is a staple food in many poor countries o Contains no vitamin A Agrobacterium used to carry beta-carotene manufacturing enzymes from daffodil and “inoculated” rice cells Insert the new “beta-carotene” gene into rice

13 Edible Vaccines Cholera is a bacterial disease that causes deadly diarrhea o Countries without clean water A vaccine “gene” identified Vaccine “gene” is inserted into potatoes o Survives cooking o Potatoes easy to grow and ship to poor countries

14 Healthier Food Increase starch in potatoes o High starch potatoes absorb less oil when fried Sugar beets to produce fructan instead of sucrose o Fructan still sweet but not digested

15 Disadvantages Environmental Hazards Unintended harm o Bt corn pollen affecting monarch butterflies Gene transfer to non-target species o Herbicide-resistance genes transferring to weeds Superweeds

16 Disadvantages Human Health Risks Allergenicity o Create new lethal allergies Unknown, long-term effects

17 Disadvantages Economic Concerns Patented varieties expensive Small farmers and Third World agriculture impacted Accidental patent infringement o Watch the movie, “Food, Inc”


19 GMO Inherently Unsafe Process is unpredictable Mutations occur at the gene insertion site Study proved herbicide resistant gene in soybeans (Bt) transferred to human gut bacteria o Continued functioning Long after consumption, GM proteins still present in organism (human)

20 Digestive Tract Effects FlavrSavr tomatoes created stomach lesions in rats GM potatoes (Bt) caused abnormal cell growth in mice intestines Several studies led to liver damage from GM foods GM soy and potatoes affected pancreas and kidney function in mice

21 Safety Aspects 2008 report by Royal Society of Medicine o No ill human effects linked to GMO 2009 report by Nutrition Reviews o Do not differ in nutrition o No detectable toxic effects o Changes have occurred at cellular level due to GMO 2005 review in Allergy journal o No biotech proteins have been documented to cause allergic reactions

22 9#.UxXlFONdV8E 9#.UxXlFONdV8E

23 md/genetically-modified-foods-good-or-bad md/genetically-modified-foods-good-or-bad rview.php rview.php mpacts_of_Genetically_Modified_Food_on_Human _Health mpacts_of_Genetically_Modified_Food_on_Human _Health

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