4 Physical Properties Most are hard Most are shiny Malleable Ductile can be pounded into shapesDuctilecan be pulled out or drawn into a long wireGood ConductionsTransmit heat and electricity easilyMagneticHigh Melting Point-most are solid at room temperature
5 Chemical Properties Metals show a wide range of chemical properties Some are very reactive such as sodium and potassium. They will react if exposed to air or water so they must be stored under oil in sealed containers.Other are unreactive such as gold and chromium. Gold is valued because its rare and it stays shiny because it does not react with the air. Chromium is plated on outdoor objects because it does not react with air or water.Other elements fall inbetween gold and sodium in terms of reactivity. Iron will turn to rust if left to react with air and water. The rust can then wear away and flake off. The process of reaction and wearing away is called corrosion.
6 Alloys Alloy-a mixture of metals Useful alloys combine the best properties of two or more metals into a single substanceExample: Copper is fairly soft and malleable. But if you mix it with tin, it forms bronze which can be cast into statues that last hundreds of years.Brass=Copper+ZincStainless steel=Iron+carbon+cromium+v anadium (iron rust easily, stainless steel is used to make silverware)
7 Alkali Metals Group 1, 1 valence electron They are the most reactive metalsThey are never found uncombined in nature (they are never found as elements, only as compounds)Alkali metals are very soft and shiny-so soft you could cut them with a plastic knifeThey are so reactive because they have only one valence electron. This is easily transferred to other atoms during a chemical changeThe two most important alkali metals are sodium and potassium-your diet includes lots of bothLithium compounds are used in batteries and some medicines
8 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2, 2 valence electrons Still highly reactiveNever found uncombined in natureFairly hardBright whiteGood conductors of electricityThe two most common are:magnesium (once used in flash bulbs because gives off bright light when burned, combines with aluminum to make strong lightweight alloy used for ladders and airplane parts)calcium (essential part of teeth, bones and muscles).
9 Transition Metals Group 3-12 Form a bridge between the very reactive metals on the left and the less reactive metals and other elements on the rightVery similar to each other, differences hard to detectFamiliar transition metals are: iron, copper, nickel, silver, goldHard, shinySome have unusual colorsGood conductors of electricityStable, slow to react with air and water
10 Metals in Mixed GroupsGroups include metals, nonmetals and metalloidsNot very reactive metals in these groupsPopular metals in these groups:Aluminum-used to make beverage cans and airplane bodiesTin- coats steel to protect it from corrosion in cans of foodLead-auto batteries (previously used in paint and pipes, but found to be poisonous)
11 Lanthanides and Actinides At the bottom of the periodic table are the lanthanides (top row) and actinides (bottom row)These are called the rare earth elementsLanthanides are soft, malleable, shiny metals with high conductivity. They are used in industry to make various alloys. Lanthanides are found combined together in nature. They are difficult to separate because they are all so similarOf the actinides, only thorium and uranium exist on Earth in any significant amounts. Uranium is used to produce energy in nuclear power plants. All the elements after uranium were created artificially in labs.
12 Vocabulary Malleable Ductile Conductor Magnetic Corrosion Alkali metal Alkaline earth metalTransition metalLanthanideactinide
13 Questions List four properties of most metals Compare metals on the left side of the periodic table to metals on the right.Describe three different types of metals