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Metals, metalloids, and non metals

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Presentation on theme: "Metals, metalloids, and non metals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Metals, metalloids, and non metals
Ms caldarola

2 Chemical vs physical properties
Chemical property A property that describes an ability to change into a different substance Can only be observed by changing the matter Physical property A property that can be observed without changing the composition of the matter A property that can usually be observed using senses

3 Metals Metals – are elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat They are shiny and bendable Where in the periodic table are metals found? At the left side and extending more than halfway across the table What in the classroom contains metal? (raise your hand)

4 Physical properties of Metals
The physical properties of metals include Luster – shiny and reflective Malleability – material that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets or other shapes. ex: copper Ductility – material that can be pulled out or drawn into long wire. Ex: copper Conductivity – 2 types Thermal conductivity -ability of an object to transfer heat Electrical conductivity -The ability of an object to carry electric current

5 Metals Have low specific heats
Specific heat - is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a material by 1 kelvin What does this mean? Only a small amount of energy is required to raise the temperature of a metal

6 Metals Some metals are magnetic Iron, cobalt, and nickel
Most metals are solids at room temperature Mercury – only metal that is a liquid at room temperature Usually do NOT combine with each other Readily combine with nonmetals

7 Activity page 80 Identify the properties of metals exhibited by each of the objects located at the top of the page.

8 Chemical Properties of metal
Reactivity – speed with which an element combines or reacts with other substances Why do metals react? Metals usually react by losing electrons to other atoms Ex: sodium (Na) reacts strongly with water Corrosion – deterioration of a metal due to a chemical reaction in the environment

9 Apply it page 81 1. some of the silver forks shown have lost their luster, they have become more tarnished. This is an example of _______________________ 2. what properties of gold and platinum make these metals desirable for jewelry?

10 How are metals classified
In the periodic table, metals are classifies as Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Metals in mixed groups Lanthanides Actinides

11 Types of metals Alkali metals – an element in Group 1 Most reactive
Mostly found in compounds Pure alkali metals are shiny and soft Low density and melting points Alkaline earth metal – an element is Group 2 Harder and denser Melt at higher temperatures Reactive, but not with alkali metals Mostly compounds

12 Types of Metals Transition metals – elements in Groups 3 – 12
Ex: iron, copper, nickel, gold, and silver Hard and shiny solids High melting points and high densities Good conductors of heat and electric current Very malleable Less reactive

13 Types of metals Mixed groups – only some elements in Group 13-16
Ex: tin (Sn) and Lead (Pb) Lanthanides Top row are lanthanides Lanthanides are used to make laser light Ex: used for surgery and cutting metals Actinides Second row, below lanthanides Most artificially made in laboratories

14 lets review what we learned
What does it mean to be poor conductors of heat or electricity? Heat or electricity is not easily transferred through materials What types of metals do we have? Alkali metals, alkali earth metals, transition metals, mixed groups, lanthanides, and actinides What does malleable mean? Material that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets

15 Let review what we learned
What does ductile mean? Material that can be pulled out into long wires What are they 2 types of conductivity Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity What does reactivity mean? Speed at which an elements combines or reacts with other substance.

16 Nonmetals Nonmetals – is an element that lacks most of the properties of a metal Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) are nonmetals found in your DNA

17 Physical properties: Nonmetals
Nonmetals are poor conductors of electric current and heat Solid non metals tend to be dull and brittle Low density Are gases at room temperature Ex: air you breath is mostly nitrogen and oxygen Carbon, sulfur (S), and iodine (I) are solids at room temperature Only Bromine is liquid at room temperature

18 Chemical Properties: Nonmetals
Usually gain or share electron when they react with other atoms Nonmetals react with metals What happens? Electrons move from the metal atom to the nonmetal atom Ex: sodium and chlorine react to form table salt (NaCl)- an electron moves from the sodium atom to the chlorine atom

19 Chemical Properties: Nonmetals
Able to form compound with other nonmetals In these compounds, the atom share their electron to form bonds When 2 or more atoms bond this way, they form a molecule Water molecule (H20) Apply it page. 88

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