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Presentation on theme: "THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE"— Presentation transcript:


2 Modern Periodic Table

3 Mendeleev                     1869 – Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table

4 Mendeleev Born in Siberia, the last of 14-17 children
Father blind, mother ran glass factory When he finished high school, his father died and the factory burnt down

5 Mendeleev His mother took him to St. Petersburg to study science
Denied admission to the university, he studied at a school for teachers

6 Mendeleev In time, he became a professor of chemistry at the U. of St. Petersburg While writing a chemistry textbook, he developed the periodic table

7 Mendeleev Where a gap existed in his table, he predicted a new element would be found and deduced its properties He was right. Three elements were found during his lifetime Ga, Sc, Ge

8 Mendeleev The discovered elements provided the strongest support for his periodic table It is a cornerstone in chemistry and in our understanding of how the universe is put together

9 Mendeleev Mendeleev’s table arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass

10 Modern Periodic Table Square of the periodic table contains an
                                                                                                                      Square of the periodic table contains an element’s atomic #, chemical symbol, atomic mass

11 Modern Periodic Table The elements in each group have the same number of valence electrons

12 METALS Most elements are metals 88 elements in total

13 Physical Properties of Metals
Luster (shininess) Good conductors of heat and electricity High density (heavy for their size) High melting point Some metals (Fe, Co and Ni) are magnetic

14 Physical Properties of Metals
Ductile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets)

15 Chemical Properties of Metals
Metals show a wide range of chemical properties Reactivity – ease and speed with which an element combines or reacts Group 1 and 17 VERY reactive

16 Chemical Properties of Metals
Some metals are very reactive, some do not react easily Alloy – mixture of metals Examples: bronze, brass, stainless steel

17 Chemical Properties of Metals
Easily lose electrons (Group 1 and 2) Corrode easily. Corrosion is a gradual wearing away Examples of corrosion: silver tarnishing and iron rusting

18 Families of Metals

19 Group 1 – Alkali Metals

20 Group 1 – Alkali Metals One valence electron
Most reactive of all metals Soft Low densities Low melting point

21 Group 1 – Alkali Metals Na, K Na compounds in found in sea water
Na and K both essential for life

22 Group 1 – Alkali Metals

23 Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals
Two valence electrons Group 2 Very reactive

24 Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals
Magnesium and calcium are common alkaline earth metals Calcium compounds make up much of your bones and teeth

25 Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals

26 Transition Metals

27 Transition Metals Elements in Groups 3 – 12
Bridge between very reactive metals on left side and less reactive metals on the right side

28 Rare Earth Metals Two rows on the bottom of the table
Lanthanides and Actinides Lanthanides are soft, shiny metals with high conductivity Actinides are all radioactive.

29 NONMETALS Nonmetals are found to the right of the stair step line - 17 elements in total Make up most of the human body (oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen)

30 Physical Properties of Nonmetals
The physical properties of nonmetals are opposite to those of metals

31 Physical Properties of Nonmetals
No luster (dull appearance) Poor conductor of heat and electricity Brittle (breaks easily) Not ductile Many are gases at room temperature

32 Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Not malleable Low density Low melting point Elements in this group have one valence electron How does this affect their reactivity? It makes them VERY REACTIVE.

33 Chemical Properties on Nonmetals
Have many electrons in their highest energy level (shell) Form negative ions Gain electrons Noble gases do not react with other elements (OUTER SHELL IS FULL)

34 Chemical Properties of Nonmetals
Diatomic molecule – when nonmetals form molecules of two identical atoms H H

35 METALLOIDS Elements that border the zigzag line
Have properties of both metals and nonmetals 7 in total Silicon, Boron, Antimony, Arsenic, Tellurium

36 Physical Properties of Metalloids
Solids Can be shiny or dull Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals

37 Chemical Properties of Metalloids
Tend to gain and lose electrons React with metals to form salts Some act like metals, some act like nonmetals

38 Carbon Group Carbon is the only nonmetal in Group 14
Two common forms – graphite and diamond Each element has four valence electrons                                                                                 

39 Group 15 – Nitrogen Group N and P are nonmetals N makes up 80% of air
N is essential to life

40 Group 17 -- Halogens Halogens combine with metals to form salts
Have 7 valence electrons MOST REACTIVE of NON-metals


42 Group 18 – The Noble Gases Colorless gases Do not bond or combine with other elements Outer electron shell is full

43 Group 18 – The Noble Gases He is the second lightest gas

44 Hydrogen H does not fit in with any group
(yet can be in either GROUP 1 or GROUP 17) Reacts easily with other elements

45 QUIZ YOURSELF! What are the rows across the periodic table called? Answer: PERIODS                                                                              

46 QUIZ YOURSELF! What is the term for the vertical columns in the Periodic Table? Answer: Groups or Families                                                                              

47 QUIZ YOURSELF! How are the elements arranged in the periodic table?
In order of increasing atomic number                                                                                                                      

What is the most reactive group of metals? ALKALI METALS -- GROUP 1


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