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THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
Modern Periodic Table
Mendeleev 1869 – Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table
Mendeleev Born in Siberia, the last of 14-17 childrenFather blind, mother ran glass factory When he finished high school, his father died and the factory burnt down
Mendeleev His mother took him to St. Petersburg to study scienceDenied admission to the university, he studied at a school for teachers
Mendeleev In time, he became a professor of chemistry at the U. of St. Petersburg While writing a chemistry textbook, he developed the periodic table
Mendeleev Where a gap existed in his table, he predicted a new element would be found and deduced its properties He was right. Three elements were found during his lifetime Ga, Sc, Ge
Mendeleev The discovered elements provided the strongest support for his periodic table It is a cornerstone in chemistry and in our understanding of how the universe is put together
Mendeleev Mendeleev’s table arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass
Modern Periodic Table Square of the periodic table contains an Square of the periodic table contains an element’s atomic #, chemical symbol, atomic mass
Modern Periodic Table The elements in each group have the same number of valence electrons
METALS Most elements are metals 88 elements in total
Physical Properties of MetalsLuster (shininess) Good conductors of heat and electricity High density (heavy for their size) High melting point Some metals (Fe, Co and Ni) are magnetic
Physical Properties of MetalsDuctile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets)
Chemical Properties of MetalsMetals show a wide range of chemical properties Reactivity – ease and speed with which an element combines or reacts Group 1 and 17 VERY reactive
Chemical Properties of MetalsSome metals are very reactive, some do not react easily Alloy – mixture of metals Examples: bronze, brass, stainless steel
Chemical Properties of MetalsEasily lose electrons (Group 1 and 2) Corrode easily. Corrosion is a gradual wearing away Examples of corrosion: silver tarnishing and iron rusting
Families of Metals
Group 1 – Alkali Metals
Group 1 – Alkali Metals One valence electronMost reactive of all metals Soft Low densities Low melting point
Group 1 – Alkali Metals Na, K Na compounds in found in sea waterNa and K both essential for life
Group 1 – Alkali Metals
Group 2 – Alkaline Earth MetalsTwo valence electrons Group 2 Very reactive
Group 2 – Alkaline Earth MetalsMagnesium and calcium are common alkaline earth metals Calcium compounds make up much of your bones and teeth
Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Elements in Groups 3 – 12Bridge between very reactive metals on left side and less reactive metals on the right side
Rare Earth Metals Two rows on the bottom of the tableLanthanides and Actinides Lanthanides are soft, shiny metals with high conductivity Actinides are all radioactive.
NONMETALS Nonmetals are found to the right of the stair step line - 17 elements in total Make up most of the human body (oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen)
Physical Properties of NonmetalsThe physical properties of nonmetals are opposite to those of metals
Physical Properties of NonmetalsNo luster (dull appearance) Poor conductor of heat and electricity Brittle (breaks easily) Not ductile Many are gases at room temperature
Physical Properties of NonmetalsNot malleable Low density Low melting point Elements in this group have one valence electron How does this affect their reactivity? It makes them VERY REACTIVE.
Chemical Properties on NonmetalsHave many electrons in their highest energy level (shell) Form negative ions Gain electrons Noble gases do not react with other elements (OUTER SHELL IS FULL)
Chemical Properties of NonmetalsDiatomic molecule – when nonmetals form molecules of two identical atoms H H
METALLOIDS Elements that border the zigzag lineHave properties of both metals and nonmetals 7 in total Silicon, Boron, Antimony, Arsenic, Tellurium
Physical Properties of MetalloidsSolids Can be shiny or dull Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals
Chemical Properties of MetalloidsTend to gain and lose electrons React with metals to form salts Some act like metals, some act like nonmetals
Carbon Group Carbon is the only nonmetal in Group 14Two common forms – graphite and diamond Each element has four valence electrons
Group 15 – Nitrogen Group N and P are nonmetals N makes up 80% of airN is essential to life
Group 17 -- Halogens Halogens combine with metals to form saltsHave 7 valence electrons MOST REACTIVE of NON-metals
Group 18 – The Noble Gases Colorless gases Do not bond or combine with other elements Outer electron shell is full
Group 18 – The Noble Gases He is the second lightest gas
Hydrogen H does not fit in with any group(yet can be in either GROUP 1 or GROUP 17) Reacts easily with other elements
QUIZ YOURSELF! What are the rows across the periodic table called? Answer: PERIODS
QUIZ YOURSELF! What is the term for the vertical columns in the Periodic Table? Answer: Groups or Families
QUIZ YOURSELF! How are the elements arranged in the periodic table?In order of increasing atomic number
QUIZ YOURSELF! ALKALI METALS -- GROUP 1What is the most reactive group of metals? ALKALI METALS -- GROUP 1
The Periodic Table.
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