Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 – The Nature of Science"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 – The Nature of Science Earth ScienceChapter 1 – The Nature of Science
2 Earth Science OBJECTIVES Differentiate among the four major branches of Earth Science.Contrast the four systems of Earth.Discuss how Earth science effects your daily life.
3 Chapter 1 – Major Areas There are four major areas in Earth science. Astronomy is the study of objects beyond the Earth’s atmosphere.M101 is a large Milky-Way-like galaxy in Ursa Major, about 25 million light-years (ly) distant.
4 Chapter 1 – Major Areas (continued) The study of the materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials is known as geology.
5 Chapter 1 – Major Areas (continued) The study of Earth’s Oceans is called oceanography.The following activities are usually performed by oceanographers:studying the creatures that inhabit salty watermeasuring physical and chemical properties of the oceansexamining the effects of human activities on Earth's saltwater bodies
6 Chapter 1 – Major Areas (continued) Meteorology is the branch of Earth science that deals with Earth’s atmosphere.
7 Chapter 1 SpheresEarth can be divided into four major systems (or spheres).The lithosphere includes the rocks that make up the crust and rigid upper mantle.
8 Chapter 1 Spheres – continued The atmosphere is the blanket of gas that surrounds Earth.
9 Chapter 1 Spheres - continued Earth’s hydrosphere is the system of all of the water on the planet.The water in Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and in Earth’s atmosphere makes up the hydrosphere.
10 Chapter 1 Spheres - continued The biosphere is Earth’s inhabitants and their environments.
11 Chapter 1 The Spheres – the Summary Earth’s four main systems interact with one another.You are part of the biosphere.You live on the crust, which is part of the lithosphere.You breathe the gases in the atmosphere.You depend in many ways on the water in the hydrosphere.
12 1.2 Methods of ScientistsOBJECTIVESList the steps used in a scientific method.Compare and Contrast experimental variables and controls.Identify basic SI units.Explain how to write numbers using scientific notation.
13 Chapter 1 Section 2The first step in a scientific method is to identify the problem and determine what you want to know.defining the problem,stating a hypothesisanalyzing the results of the testand drawing conclusions.
14 Comparing & Contrasting the independent variable and the dependent variable. Both variables are involved in scientific experimentation.An independent variable is a factor that can be manipulated. The x-axis.A dependent variable is a factor that results from manipulating the independent variable, and is measured by the experimenter. The y-axis
15 ControlTo show that the results of the experiment are actually due to the condition being tested, scientists use a control, which is a standard for comparison.
16 Chapter 1 Section 2 525,600 Minutes 5.256 x 105 Minutes 0.001 M In scientific notation, a number is expressed as a value between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.525,600 Minutes5.256 x 105 Minutes0.001 M1.0 x 10-3 M
17 Chapter 1 Section 2Most scientific studies use a standard system of units called SI (Le Systeme International d'Unites ), which is a modern version of the metric system.
18 SI Le Systeme International d'Unites The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg).Mass gram
19 SI Le Systeme International d'Unites Length meterTemperature Kelvin
20 SI Le Systeme International d'Unites Time secondLiquid equivalent liter
21 SI Le Systeme International d'Unites Weight Newton
22 1.3 Communicating in Science OBJECTIVESList several ways in which scientific information is communicated.Differentiate between a scientific theory and a scientific law.
23 Chapter 1 Section 3 Scientific information is communicated through: lab reports,professional papers.either of which may include tables and graphs, and models.
24 Chapter 1 Section 3A basic fact that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon is called a scientific law.May be thought of as a ‘rule of nature’, even though the cause of the law may not be known.
25 Chapter 1 Section 3Scientific theory is based on an explanation which is based on many observations during repeated experiments.
26 Chapter 1 Section 3 A scientific theory is valid only if: it is consistent with observations,makes predictions that can be tested, andis the simplest explanation of observations.
27 Chapter 1 Section 3A theory can be changed or modified if it is found to be incorrect.