2 How do scientists solve problems? Scientific MethodHow do scientists solve problems?
3 Scientific MethodSeries of problem-solving procedures that help scientists conduct experimentsScientific methods are used by scientists to help organize and plan their experiments and investigations.
5 Factors of the Scientific Method Hypothesis: testable explanation of a situation that can be supported or disprovedExperiment: classified as an organized procedure that involves making observations and measurements to test a hypothesis.
6 Factors of the Scientific Method Variable: factor that can cause a change in the results of an experimentIndependent variable: the factor that is changed by the experimenterDependent variable: a factor that is affected by changes in the independent variable.Control: factor that does not change when other variable doused in an experiment to show that the results of an experiment are a result of the condition being tested.
7 Data Two Types of Data Qualitative Data: Express with Numbers Quantitative Data: Express with DescriptionsDisplay in graphs (Bar, Line, Circle) and/ or tablesX axis: Independent VariableY axis: Dependent Variable
8 Analyze ResultsIf results are consistent with hypothesis, communicate and publish results.If results are not consistent with hypothesis, modify experiment.
9 Communicating Results Lab ReportsGraphs and tablesModelsTheoriesLaws
10 GraphsLine graphs, the independent variable is plotted on the horizontal (x) axis, and the dependent variable is plotted on the vertical (y) axisCircle graphs show a fixed quantity using slices representing parts of the whole.Bar graphs represent quantitative data using bars.
11 ModelsA scientific model is an idea picture, a system, or a mathematical expression that represents the concept being explained.
12 Section 1.3Communication in ScienceTheories and LawsA scientific theory is an explanation based on many observations during repeated investigations.A scientific law is a principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon.
13 Reliable ExperimentsOther scientists must be able to repeat the experiment and obtain the same results.The bigger the sample the more reliable the results.The more an experiment is preformed the more reliable the results.
14 AssignmentThis car will not start.start1.What are some possible reasons the car will not start? 2.How would you test your guesses?
15 Tada! The Five Steps of the Scientific Method Everyday ScienceScientific Method in everydayCar will not start =____________Out of gas? = _________________Adding gas and seeing if car starts = ___________________________Car doesn’t start = _____________It wasn’t out of gas = _____________________________ (disproves hypothesis this time)Tada! The Five Steps of the Scientific Method
16 Everyday Science Scientific Method in everyday Car will not start =ObservationOut of gas? = HypothesisAdding gas and seeing if car starts = ExperimentCar doesn’t start = Data/ResultsIt wasn’t out of gas =Conclusion/ Revise (disproves hypothesis this time)
17 Assignment: Write a hypothesis for each of the following research problems. Identify the dependent and independent variable for each. 1. What effect does high temperature have on onion growth rates?2. What effect does light have on plant growth?3. What effect do different mouthwashes have on bad breath?4. What effect does light have on plant growth?
18 Warm Up & EQ What does -ology mean? What are the meaning of these prefixes:Meteor- Eco-Geo- Bio-Hydro-EQ:
19 What will we study this semester? Earth ScienceWhat will we study this semester?
20 The Scope of Earth Science Section 1.1Earth ScienceThe Scope of Earth ScienceEarth science can be broken into five major areas of specialization:
21 Major AreasGeology: the study of materials that make up Earth, the processes that form and change these materials, and the history of the planet and its life-formsMeteorology: the study of the forces and processes that cause the atmosphere to change and produce weather
22 Major Areas Astronomy: the study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere Oceanography: the study of Earth’s oceansEnvironmental Science: the study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings
23 There are 4 main earth systems. Scientists who study Earth have identified four main Earth systems:
24 Systems of Earth Hydrosphere all the water on Earth, including the water in the atmosphereGeospherethe area from the surface of Earth down to its center
25 Systems of Earth Atmosphere the blanket of gases that surrounds our planetBiosphereall organisms on Earth as well as the environments in which they live
26 Earth’s SystemsAll of Earth’s systems are interdependent. Notice how water from the hydrosphere enters the atmosphere, falls to the biosphere, and soaks into the geosphere.
27 MeasurementLe Système International d’Unités (SI) is a modern version of the metric system based on a decimal system.
29 SI UnitsKelvin = °C +273Example: 20 °C = 293 K1000 mL = 1 L
30 MeasurementDensity is the measure of the amount of matter that occupies a given space.Density = mass/volumeThe SI units for density are expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), or grams per milliliter (g/mL)1 cm3 = 1 mL
31 Group Assignment Each group will have one of the Earth’s four systems Describe each system, include drawings or illustrationsExplain how your system related to the 3 other systems.