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Guided Notes on the Nature of Science

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1 Guided Notes on the Nature of Science
Pages 5-10 in Earth Science textbook

2 Name 5 items or activities from the 2nd paragraph that encompass the scope of earth science:
-dinosaur bones -mining rocks -computer models of air -ocean floor exploration -the study of objects in space

3 The four major divisions of earth science are:
Astronomy Meteorology Geology Oceanography

4 Describe, in detail, each of the 4 divisions of earth science:
Astronomy is the study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere Meteorology is the study of the air that surrounds Earth Geology is the study of the materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials Oceanography is the study of Earth’s oceans

5 List the 6 subspecialities of earth highlighted in the text…
Climatology: patterns of weather over a long period of time Paleontology: remains of ancient organisms Hydrology: water flow on the earth’s surface Ecology: how organisms interact with their environment Geochemistry: the chemical composition of the earth Tectonics: effects of internal processes on Earth’s surface

6 There are four main Earth systems
There are four main Earth systems. They are the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere. Each of these is unique, but they all interact with each other. None of Earth’s systems is independent of the others, nor of the global system of Earth itself.

7 There are two kinds of crust: oceanic and continental
Describe the components and characteristics of each of the 4 main earth systems. Lithosphere: the rigid outer shell of the planet, including the crust and solid upper mantle. There are two kinds of crust: oceanic and continental

8 Hydrosphere: the water in the Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and glaciers, and water in the atmosphere 97% is saltwater, 3% is freshwater

9 Atmosphere: the blanket of gases that surround the Earth
78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Carbon dioxide

10 Biosphere: all organisms that live on the Earth and the environments in which they live

11 Describe how you interact with the 4 main earth systems:
We live on the earth’s crust, breathe its air, drink its water, and interact with other living organisms in order to maintain life.

12 Answer questions 1-6 of the Section Assessment:
Meteorology, Geology, Oceanography, Astronomy Rocks and minerals, tectonic processes, structures of the earth Earth’s composition and the processes that change it The lithosphere is solid; the asthenosphere is partially molten

13 Saltwater is found in the oceans.
Freshwater is found in lakes, rivers, glaciers, and groundwater. Water vapor is found in the atmosphere. 6. The water cycle consists of evaporation, condensation, and prepcipitation.

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