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Canadian Immigration Trends  The majority of Canadians (as many as 97%) are immigrants or descendants of immigrants.  This is why Canada is considered.

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Presentation on theme: "Canadian Immigration Trends  The majority of Canadians (as many as 97%) are immigrants or descendants of immigrants.  This is why Canada is considered."— Presentation transcript:


2 Canadian Immigration Trends  The majority of Canadians (as many as 97%) are immigrants or descendants of immigrants.  This is why Canada is considered to be a “multicultural” society.  For the most part, Canada also encourages immigrants to retain their traditions and language!

3 Patterns of Immigration  The number of immigrants changes from year to year  In recent years, more than 200,000 immigrants have arrived each year

4 When?What Happened?Why? 1840sArrival of1000’s of Irish settlers Irish potato crop fails; facing starvation 1905-1914Massive immigration to Canadian west from Eastern Europe Canadian gov’t wants to settle prairies, offers free land/incentives to immigrants 1915-1919Little immigrationWWI, worldwide influenza epidemic limits movement 1930-1945Little immigrationWorld economic depression, WWII 1947-1960Many Italians come to Canada Italians flee devastation caused by war 1956Many Hungarians come to Canada Hungarian revolt against Russians fails, flee 1980-1997Arrival of thousands of Hong Kong Chinese Immigrants seek political stability before China retakes control of HK in 97 1980-2003Many people from Afghanistan Immigrants seek safe haven from conflict

5 See a pattern?  The source of immigration changes depending on different factors (usually economic and political conditions)  Canada offers these people a “haven”, a country which offers freedom and opportunity

6 Why People Migrate Push factors: war, absence of human rights, poor economic/educational opportunities, religious persecution, terrorism, natural disasters Pull Factors: to join family, job opportunities, better taxes Intervening obstacles: distance, cost, can’t meet requirements!

7 Types of Migration  Ecological migration – movement of people because something in their environment upon which they depend disappears/relocates. In the future, climate change could cause the greatest human migration ever.  Voluntary migration – movement of people of their own free will (ie: 19th Century European emigrants).

8  Involuntary migration (Refugees) – movement of people against their will for fear of persecution based on their political beliefs, race, or ethnicity (ie: African slaves, Jews fleeing Nazi Germany, Rwanda, the Congo and the former Yugoslavia).  Illegal migration – movement of people without the sanction of immigration laws (ie: Chinese to Canada, Mexicans to the U.S.)—Human smuggling is BIG BUSINESS!

9 Refugees in Crisis  In 2000, UN estimates were that there were ~12 million refugees in the world (people that leave their home country to save their lives). By end of 2013  16.7 million  Refugee movements caused by: civil war/terrorism; authoritarian governments; religious/racial/ethnic/ gender persecution; environmental scarcities; declining socioeconomic conditions, etc.

10  Refugees are usually assisted through three ways – voluntary repatriation (return home once country of origin is safe again), local integration of refugees into countries of first asylum, and third-country resettlement (finding a third country willing to accept the refugee).

11  Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are people forced to move from their homes but not outside the borders of their country. Asylum seekers enter a country claiming to be refugees, even though they may come from a country that is not experiencing war or natural disaster.

12 Illegal Immigration  It is often difficult for governments to distinguish genuine refugees from “economic” refugees. Some countries adopt a policy of amnesty (pardon) towards illegal immigrants.

13 Replacement Migration  The international migration needed to offset the overall aging of a population, the decline in the population of working-age people, and the decline in the size of population in general.

14 Opportunities vs. Challenges of Migration For Receiving Countries Opportunities: Expansion of business opportunities, Cultural enrichment, Global engagement and citizenship Challenges: Neighbourhood segregation and lack of social integration, Hate crimes Strategies used to address the needs of various immigrant groups within receiving countries?  Language training programs  Celebration of traditions from various cultures  Cultural and social support services in several languages  Assistance with job search and housing search  Addressing hate crimes through community policing and education campaigns

15 Opportunities vs. Challenges of Migration For Sending Countries Opportunities: unemployment pressure relieved, reduces housing scarcity  reducing both of these can sometimes reduce political unrest; often currency sent home boosts the economy; sometimes migrants return to home country with new skills/knowledge Challenges: often loss of most educated, most enterprising (brain drain)  particularly difficult for developing countries; financial assets/investments leave with migrants

16 Rural-Urban Migration  Migration from rural to urban areas began in Britain in the mid-18th Century as a direct result of industrialization & the mechanization of agriculture.  There are more people participating in rural-urban migration than in international migration.  Most migrants are absorbed into the economic/social fabric of cities; not necessarily thrust into poverty when they arrive.

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