Presentation on theme: "Canadian Immigration Trends The majority of Canadians (as many as 97%) are immigrants or descendants of immigrants. This is why Canada is considered."— Presentation transcript:
Canadian Immigration Trends The majority of Canadians (as many as 97%) are immigrants or descendants of immigrants. This is why Canada is considered to be a “multicultural” society. For the most part, Canada also encourages immigrants to retain their traditions and language!
Patterns of Immigration The number of immigrants changes from year to year In recent years, more than 200,000 immigrants have arrived each year
When?What Happened?Why? 1840sArrival of1000’s of Irish settlers Irish potato crop fails; facing starvation 1905-1914Massive immigration to Canadian west from Eastern Europe Canadian gov’t wants to settle prairies, offers free land/incentives to immigrants 1915-1919Little immigrationWWI, worldwide influenza epidemic limits movement 1930-1945Little immigrationWorld economic depression, WWII 1947-1960Many Italians come to Canada Italians flee devastation caused by war 1956Many Hungarians come to Canada Hungarian revolt against Russians fails, flee 1980-1997Arrival of thousands of Hong Kong Chinese Immigrants seek political stability before China retakes control of HK in 97 1980-2003Many people from Afghanistan Immigrants seek safe haven from conflict
See a pattern? The source of immigration changes depending on different factors (usually economic and political conditions) Canada offers these people a “haven”, a country which offers freedom and opportunity
Why People Migrate Push factors: war, absence of human rights, poor economic/educational opportunities, religious persecution, terrorism, natural disasters Pull Factors: to join family, job opportunities, better taxes Intervening obstacles: distance, cost, can’t meet requirements!
Types of Migration Ecological migration – movement of people because something in their environment upon which they depend disappears/relocates. In the future, climate change could cause the greatest human migration ever. Voluntary migration – movement of people of their own free will (ie: 19th Century European emigrants).
Involuntary migration (Refugees) – movement of people against their will for fear of persecution based on their political beliefs, race, or ethnicity (ie: African slaves, Jews fleeing Nazi Germany, Rwanda, the Congo and the former Yugoslavia). Illegal migration – movement of people without the sanction of immigration laws (ie: Chinese to Canada, Mexicans to the U.S.)—Human smuggling is BIG BUSINESS!
Refugees in Crisis In 2000, UN estimates were that there were ~12 million refugees in the world (people that leave their home country to save their lives). By end of 2013 16.7 million Refugee movements caused by: civil war/terrorism; authoritarian governments; religious/racial/ethnic/ gender persecution; environmental scarcities; declining socioeconomic conditions, etc.
Refugees are usually assisted through three ways – voluntary repatriation (return home once country of origin is safe again), local integration of refugees into countries of first asylum, and third-country resettlement (finding a third country willing to accept the refugee).
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are people forced to move from their homes but not outside the borders of their country. Asylum seekers enter a country claiming to be refugees, even though they may come from a country that is not experiencing war or natural disaster.
Illegal Immigration It is often difficult for governments to distinguish genuine refugees from “economic” refugees. Some countries adopt a policy of amnesty (pardon) towards illegal immigrants.
Replacement Migration The international migration needed to offset the overall aging of a population, the decline in the population of working-age people, and the decline in the size of population in general.
Opportunities vs. Challenges of Migration For Receiving Countries Opportunities: Expansion of business opportunities, Cultural enrichment, Global engagement and citizenship Challenges: Neighbourhood segregation and lack of social integration, Hate crimes Strategies used to address the needs of various immigrant groups within receiving countries? Language training programs Celebration of traditions from various cultures Cultural and social support services in several languages Assistance with job search and housing search Addressing hate crimes through community policing and education campaigns
Opportunities vs. Challenges of Migration For Sending Countries Opportunities: unemployment pressure relieved, reduces housing scarcity reducing both of these can sometimes reduce political unrest; often currency sent home boosts the economy; sometimes migrants return to home country with new skills/knowledge Challenges: often loss of most educated, most enterprising (brain drain) particularly difficult for developing countries; financial assets/investments leave with migrants
Rural-Urban Migration Migration from rural to urban areas began in Britain in the mid-18th Century as a direct result of industrialization & the mechanization of agriculture. There are more people participating in rural-urban migration than in international migration. Most migrants are absorbed into the economic/social fabric of cities; not necessarily thrust into poverty when they arrive.