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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-1 Punto di partenza You have already learned that the present tense in Italian can be used to describe what someone does or is doing. To emphasize that an action is in progress, use the present tense of stare and the gerundio.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-2 Form the gerundio by replacing the -are ending of an infinitive with -ando, and the -ere and -ire endings with -endo. This form is equivalent to the English ending -ing. infinitivegerundio girare dipngere scolpire girando dipingendo scolpendo filming painting sculpting
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-3 A few verbs that have an irregular stem in the imperfetto, such as bere, dire, fare, and tradurre* (to translate), use the same irregular stem to form the gerundio. infinitivegerundio bevevo dicevo facevo traducevo bevendo dicendo facendo traducendo drinking saying doing translating
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-4 Use the present tense of stare + [gerundio] to express an action that is in progress. This is called the forma progressiva. Il pittore non è in casa. Sta lavorando allaperto. The painter is not home. He is working outdoors. I bambini non ti sentono. Stanno ascoltando la radio. The children dont hear you. They are listening to the radio. Non posso parlare; sto mangiando. I cant talk; I am eating. Che cosa stai scrivendo? Una favola? What are you writing? A fairy tale?
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-5 Use the imperfetto of stare + [gerundio] to describe actions that were in progress in the past. Il regista non cera. Stava girando unaltra scena. The director wasnt there. He was shooting another scene. Non ti ho visto. Stavo cercando le mie chiavi. I didnt see you. I was looking for my keys. Giacometti stava scolpendo quando labbiamo conosciuto. Giacometti was sculpting when we met him. Mi dispiace, stavo dormendo durante il film. Im sorry, I was sleeping during the movie.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-6 Note that the use of the forma progressiva is more limited than its English equivalent. It is much more common to use the simple present or imperfetto to talk about ongoing actions in Italian. Use the forma progressiva to emphasize the fact that the action is in progress.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-7 Il poeta scrive una poesia damore. The poet writes/is writing/does write a love poem. BUT Il poeta sta scrivendo una poesia damore. The poet is writing (at this very moment) a love poem. La mamma leggeva il racconto al figlio. The mother was reading/used to read the story to her son. BUT La mamma stava leggendo il racconto al figlio. The mother was reading (at that very moment) the story to her son.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-8 Object and reflexive pronouns either precede the conjugated form of stare or are attached to the end of the gerundio. Perché la Gioconda mi sta sorridendo/sta sorridendomi? Why is the Mona Lisa smiling at me? Il quadro sarà bellissimo. Lo sto finendo/Sto finendolo adesso. The painting will be very beautiful. I am finishing it now. Ti stavamo facendo/Stavamo facendoti un capolavoro. We were making a masterpiece for you. Lo scultore si stava preparando/ stava preparandosi per la mostra. The sculptor was preparing himself for the show.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-9 In cases where an English word ending in -ing is used as the subject of a sentence, the infinitive, rather than the gerundio, is typically used in Italian. Andare al cinema è il mio passatempo preferito. Going to the movies is my favorite hobby. Pubblicare un libro è quasi sempre difficile. Publishing a book is almost always difficult.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.10B.1-10 1. Il pittore sta ___________ (lavorare). 2. Tu stai ___________ (scrivere) al professore. 3. I bambini stavano ___________ (ascoltare) la radio. 4. Io e Tiziana stavamo ___________ (correre) verso di te. 5. Gabriele sta ___________ (stampare) tutti i documenti. 6. Ieri sera alle otto io stavo ___________ (cenare). 7. Voi state ___________ (cercare) lufficio del professor Antichi. 8. Quale film stavano ___________ (guardare) i tuoi amici? Per ogni frase, scrivi il gerundio del verbo indicato. lavorando
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.2-1 Punto di partenza Although the passato prossimo and the imperfetto are both past tenses, they have distinct.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8A.1-1 Punto di partenza Comparatives of equality (comparativi di uguaglianza) are used to indicate that two people,
Direct Objects & Direct Object Pronouns
Direct Object Pronouns
Reflexive VerbsReflexive Verbs Reflexive verbsReflexive verbs.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.1-1 Punto di partenza Youve learned how to use the passato prossimo to express past actions. Now youll learn.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.1-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dovere (to have to/must; to owe), potere (to be able to/can), and volere (to.
Punto di partenza Adverbs describe how, when, and where actions take place. They modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Unlike adjectives, adverbs.
Punto di partenza In Italian, as in English, a verb is a word denoting an action or a state of being. The subject of a verb is the person or thing that.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-1 Punto di partenza With the exception of the imperative and the conditional, the Italian verb forms you.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.7B.2-1 Punto di partenza In Strutture 7B.1 you learned the informal imperative. Use the formal imperative to give.
7.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Conoscere and sapere Conoscere and sapere both mean to know, but they are used in different contexts.
3.2 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfetto Use the imperfetto to talk about what used to happen or to describe ongoing and habitual.
Punto di partenza A reflexive verb “reflects” the action of the verb back to the subject. The infinitive form of reflexives ends with the reflexive pronoun.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 5A, you learned that a direct object answers the question what? or whom? An indirect object identifies to whom or for whom.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the adverb ci to mean there or to replace certain prepositional phrases. Use the pronoun.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3A.3-1 Punto di partenza You are already familiar with Italian verbs that end in -are and -ere. The third class.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 2A, you learned how to form the present tense of -are verbs by attaching different endings to the stem. Conjugate regular.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.2-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dire (to say; to tell), uscire (to go out; to leave), and venire (to come) are.
Punto di partenza Avere (To have) is an important and frequently used verb in Italian. Because it is an irregular verb, you will need to memorize its present.
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