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(Perspective, Theory, and Method)

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1 (Perspective, Theory, and Method)
Chapter I What is Sociology? (Perspective, Theory, and Method) Sociology: The systematic study of human society. Society: People who interact in a defined territory and share culture.

2 II. Founder of sociology
Auguste Comte: A French philosopher was the founder of sociology. He coined the term “sociology” in 1838 as a response to major changes taking place in England, Germany, and France during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Industrial revolution, growth of cities in Europe, and politics changed the way people lived. He believed that “the major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually operates” (Macionis, 2006). He believed in Positivism: A way of understanding based on science. Science: A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systemic observation. Scientific Method: The approach to research which involves observation, experimentation, generalization, and verification.

3 III. Contributors Harold Garfinkel: Invented the ethnomethodological approach to studying social behavior. Erving Goffman: Developed dramaturgy as a way of studying social interaction. George Herbert Mead: First developed the symbolic interactionist perspective. Max Weber: Pioneered the study of bureaucracy. Talcott Parsons: An early U. S. sociologists, he elaborated the functionalist perspective. Auguste Comte: Coined the term sociology. Robert Merton: Developed the distinction between manifest and latent functions. Emile Durkheim: The first proffessor of sociology, he produced the first true sociological study, in which he explained the individual act of suicide as a result of social forces. Herbert Spencer: Developed many of the standard terms and concepts of sociology and wrote them down in the first sociology textbook. Karl Marx: Pioneered the conflict approach to sociology. C. Wright Mills: Developed the concept of the sociological imagination. W. E. B. DuBois: Developed the concept of double consciousness. Harriett Martineau: Wrote a book called “society in America”. Jane Adams: Developed the Chicago “Hull House”.

4 IV. “Three Schools Of Thought” or Paradigms, or Theories, or Perspectives
1. Structural Functional: A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. 2. Symbolic Interaction: A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interaction of individuals. 3. Social Conflict: A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.

5 Structural Functional
The various parts of society are interdependent and functionally related. Each part of the social system contributes positively to the continued operation of the system. The various parts of the social system fit together harmoniously. Social systems are highly stable. Social life is governed by consensus and cooperation. Functionalist sociologists are concerned with the role each part of society contributes to the smooth functioning of the whole. Social order is achieved through cooperation. Social Conflict Society is a system of accommodations among competing interest groups. The social system may at any time become unbalanced because of shifts in power. The various parts of the social system do not fit together harmoniously. Social systems are unstable and are likely to change rapidly. Social life involves conflict because of differing goals. Conflict sociologist are concerned with who benefits from particular social arrangements. Social order is achieved through coercion and even force.

6 VI. Functionalism VS Conflict Thinking
Humans need to be controlled. We should maintain the status quo. Society should change slowly. Humans are born evil. Humans should not have “free will”. Conflict Humans need to be free. Change is good. Society should have a revolutionary change. Humans are born good. Humans should have “free will”.

7 VII. Benefits of Sociology
Helps us access “common sense” ideas. Helps us access opportunities and constraints in our life. Empowers us to become active participants in our society. Helps us to live in a diverse world. Helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals. Helps us to see the strange in the familiar by realizing that society guides our thoughts and actions. Helps us to see the individual in social context.

8 VIII. Five Basic Institutions
Politics: Distributes power, sets a society’s agenda, and makes decision. Economy: Organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Education: Guides a society’s transformation of knowledge. Religion: Involves beliefs and practices based on a conception of the sacred. Family: Unites individuals into cooperative groups that oversee the bearing and raising of children.

9 Chapter 2 IX. Sociological Research (Principle Stages of the Research Process)
Problem (issue) Hypothesis (assumption) Research Design (plan) Method (experiment, observation, survey, existing data) Data Collection (population) Data Analysis (results) Generalization (recommendations)

10 X. The Research Wheel

11 Xl. Research Methods Experiment: Used for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions. Survey: Subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or interview. Participant Observation: Observing people while joining them in their routine activities. Existing Sources: Available data is analyzed.

12 XII. Concepts, Variables, and Measurement
Concepts: Mental constructs that represent some part of the world. Variables: Concepts whose value changes from case to case. Measurement: Process of determining the value of a variable. Reliability: Refers to consistency in measure. Validity: Means precision in measuring exactly what you intend. Independent Variable: The variable that causes the change. Dependent Variable: The variable that changes. Control Variables: The variable held constant to help clarify the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. Correlation: When two or more variables change together. Spurious Correlation: Two or more variables changing cause by some other variable.

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