Presentation on theme: "Understanding Food Amy Brown"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Food Amy Brown Chapter 21:Cereal Grains and Pasta
2 Composition of Cereal Grains StructureAll grasses have individual kernels or grains, called caryopses, which are similar in structure.Each caryopsis has a:Protective outer huskBran coveringStarchy endospermGerm
3 Composition of Cereal Grains Husk: The rough outer covering protecting the grain.Bran: The hard outer covering just under the husk that protects the grain’s soft endosperm.Endosperm: The largest portion of the grain, containing all of the grain’s starch.Germ: The smallest portion of the grain, and the embryo for a future plant.
8 Types of Cereal GrainsThe three dominant grains grown within the last 5,000 to 8,000 years of human history appear to have been:WheatBarleyRiceThe grains of primary importance in the world now in descending order are:WheatRiceCornBarleyMilletSorghumOatsRyeWheat classification see next slideUS 2nd largest producer of wheat (Russia first)75% made into flourBarley one of the oldest cultivated grains.Rice over half of the world’s population relies on rice as food staple. A symbol of life and fertility, this thrown at weddings.
9 Major types of wheat are winter (hard) and spring (soft) They differ in their protein content.Durum is the hardest and the highest in protein, and most suitable in bread and pasta production.Majority of wheat grown int eh US is soft or common. Lowere in protein and ideal for cakes , cookies, etc.
10 Types of Cereal GrainsRice is classified according to mode of cultivation, grain length and texture.Over 90% is cultivated submerged in water and is known as lowland, wet, or irrigated rice. Highland, hill, or dry rice is grown in areas of plentiful rain without flooding.The length in relationship to the width of the grain determines if rice is long, medium or short grain. Most long grain rices (about 4x longer than wide), cook to a drier, fluffier consistency which allows separation.Med and short have less amylose, which makes them stickierLong grain more amylose, short grain more amylopectin
11 Forms of Rice White Converted Instant Brown Specialty Wild White – rice that has been milled an dploished to remove husk, bran, germ plus fiber and most of B vitamins and iron.Converted – or parboiled, a long grain rice that has been soaked, steamed under pressure and dried before milling. Stays firmer and separate betterInstant – or precooked has been cooked and then dehydrated. Inferior texture.Brown – bran and germ left intact, only hull removed. Longer cooking times but more fiber, vitamins and B vitamins. Tougher textureSpecialty – nuttier tastes and more expensive jasmineWild not a rice or even a grain. It is a grass. 2x the protein and more B vitamins than white rice.
14 Types of Cereal Grains Other Grains TriticaleBuckwheat is not related to wheat and is not a true grain.It is the fruit of a leafy plant that is related to rhubarb.Some new grains have entered the market, including:AmaranthKamutQuinoaTriticale is a relatively new hybrid grain that was developed in 1875 by a Scottish botanist.Higher in protein content and more of the essential amino acid lysine than wheat. Lysine is the most common limiting aa in wheat. Not widely used because of sticky dough problemsBuckwheat is not related to wheat and is not a true grain.It is the fruit of a leafy plant that is related to rhubarb.Amaranth – high protein grain very small grain “some things are not worth an amarnth seed”Kamut nutritionally superieor to wehat lower in protein, buttery flavor but does contain glutenQuinoa staple of andes. “Inca Rice” Very tiny; seed-like kernels.
15 Preparation of Cereal Grains The desired results in prepared grains are most commonly achieved by moist-heat methods:BoilingSimmeringMicrowavingBaking in the presence of liquidIn natural form are nearly indigestible.When in water the outer covering softens and makes the enosperm digestible. Cooking also gelatinizs the starch.Gelatinization occurs when heated starch molecules absorb water and expand. The degreee of expansion depends on the type of grain and is partially caused by the escape of amylose and amylopectin from the starch granule.
18 Preparation of Cereal Grains Factors Influencing Grain Cooking:Form of grainPresence of bran or hullpH of the waterDesired tenderness…are factors that influence the amount of:Water to be usedHeat intensityCooking timeAny reduction in particle size through:CrackingRollingCuttingFlaking…decreases the heating time.
19 Storage of Cereal Grains Dry grains, freed of their bran and germ, are best kept in airtight wrappings or containers in a cool, dry area free of rodents, insects, and other pests.Cooked whole grains can be frozen for future use if they are tightly wrapped or placed in airtight containersWhole grains should be refrigerated in airtight containers to retard rancidityUsually, only whole or cooked grains are refrigerated.
20 Pastas Ingredients Flour Egg yolks Enriched Specialty ingredients It is the protein in durum wheat flour that gives pasta its elasticity and helps it maintain its shape during cooking.Durum wheat is also higher in carotenoid pigments, which contribute to pasta’s rich, golden color.Pasta made from whole-wheat flour is slightly higher in nutrients and fiber than standard pasta, but it has a tougher texture and stronger taste.Also, many pastas contain egg yolks, which further enhances their yellow color.Most pasta manufactured in North America is enriched with several B vitamins and iron.Vegetable purées made from spinach, tomatoes, or beets can be added to pasta to alter its color and flavor.
21 PastasPasta, or “alimentary (nourishing) paste,” is made by combining water with semolina flour and/or farina.If eggs are added (at least 5.5% egg by weight), the pasta product is referred to as “noodles.”Asian noodles may be made from:RiceMung beanTaroYamCornBuckwheatPotato…flours.
22 PastasTypes of PastaPasta is formed by placing the freshly made pasta dough in a cylinder and forcing it through holes in small discs (dies).The type of disc used determines what kind of pasta is produced.There are over 600 pasta shapes now in existence, but only about 150 are available in North America.Unusual shapes such as dinosaurs and turtles have been developed to appeal to youthful consumers.
23 PastasHigh-protein pasta products that contain % more protein than standard pasta.Fresh pasta, found in the refrigerated section, has a higher moisture content, which gives it a softer consistency.Couscous looks like a grain, but it is actually “Moroccan pasta” made from semolina that has been cooked, dried, and pulverized into small, rough particles the size of rice grains.
24 Preparation of Pasta Moist-Heat Preparation Pasta is easy to prepare by boiling or simmering.During heating, the majority of pastas expand to two or three times their original size.Al dente: Meaning “to the tooth” in Italian, it refers to pasta that is tender, yet firm enough to offer some resistance to the teeth.Properly prepared pasta is not excessively sticky, and once it is done, it is drained and ready to serve.
26 Storage of PastaDried pasta should be tightly wrapped and stored in a cool, dry place.Fresh pasta should be kept in the refrigerator until the “use by” date.Cooked pasta will keep for two to three days in the refrigerator.Fresh pasta should be kept in the refrigerator until the “use by” date.It will be at its best for about a week and will keep in the freezer for about a month.