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Chapter 32 Grains Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 32 Grains Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 32 Grains Chapter 15

2 Objective Identify grain products and their uses.
Explain the value of grains in the diet. Explain how to select and store grains. Describe and demonstrate methods for preparing, cooking, and serving grains.

3 All plants in the grass family are grains, sometimes called cereals
All plants in the grass family are grains, sometimes called cereals. Grains produce many small, separate dry fruits called kernels which are processed for food.

4 3 parts of a grain Bran Endosperm Germ 1


6 Common Grains Corn Wheat Rice Oats Soybeans Barley Rye Millet Couscous A few lesser known but delicious whole grains are amaranth, millet, quinoa, and spelt.

7 Nutritive Value of Grains & Cereals
Incomplete Protein Complex Carbohydrates Contain several Vitamins & Minerals Fat Wheat germ

8 Fortification vs. Enrichment of grains
Process of adding nutrients that are lost during processing, the bran and germ are removed, leaving only the endosperm. According to federal law, some nutrients lost in processing must be replaced….they are called enriched. Greater amounts of nutrients are added back into the cereals/grains than was taken out.

9 Which contains the most fiber?
White bread Enriched white bread Wheat bread Whole wheat bread

10 Cereal Grains Wheat Hard (durum) Soft (bulgur) Corn
Uses: hominy, grits, corn meal, cereals, corn oil, corn starch, corn syrup Rice short grain long grain

11 More Grains Oats whole grain rolled & quick cooking Rye Barley
Buckwheat Triticale (hybrid of wheat & rye) Quinoa

12 Grain Forms Whole Grain Pearled Grains Flakes or Rolled Grains Meal
Bran Germ Flour

13 Forms of Cereal Grains

14 Uses of Cereal Grains Most of the cereal grains produced are used for flour, pasta, and breakfast cereals. They are also used in the production of alcoholic beverages and animal feeds.

15 Cooking Grains Gelatinization
Increase in volume and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid

16 Rice Wild Rice

17 Types of rice: Short, medium & long grain
White - Husk, bran, & germ removed Converted - Long grain that’s soaked, steamed, & dried Instant - Cooked & dehydrated Brown - Has bran and germ Wild - Not a rice…a grassy, water plant

18 Cooking Rice Volume Increase Uses 2:1 ratio amount of water to rice
Cook with lid on Avoid excess stirring Volume Increase Long grain 1 cup dry = 3 cups cooked Brown 1 cup dry = 2 cups cooked Instant 1 cup = cups cooked

19 Pasta shapes Pasta shapes

20 Pasta is an Italian word meaning “paste”
Pasta is an Italian word meaning “paste” Noodles have egg added to the dough.

21 Dried Pasta Fresh Pasta
take longer to cook cooks in half the time

22 Cooking Pasta Use large amount of water Keep lid off Stir occasionally
Cook until al dente Drain Doubles in volume

23 How much is Enough? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, recommends that all adults eat at least half of their grains as whole grains – that is at least 3 servings of whole grains per day.

24 What ingredient is listed first?
Look at the ingredient list. What ingredient is listed first? Is it a whole grain? Ingredients: Whole grain oats, modified corn starch, sugar, oat bran, salt, etc.

25 What ingredient is listed first?
Ingredients: Whole grain wheat, sugar, corn meal, whole grain oats, corn syrup, rice flour, wheat flakes, corn flour, etc.

26 Legumes Plant derived Dried bean characterized by true pods enclosing a seed Types Lima beans Lentils Black-eyed peas Navy beans Peanuts Soybeans Kidney beans Split peas Northern beans Pinto beans

27 Legume Cookery Soaking uncooked beans Cooking process
3 c water / 1 c beans 1.5 hours - cooking Cooking process Starch gelatinizes Fibers soften Lignin, cellulose, hemi-cellulose

28 Factors influencing cooking time of legumes
Hard water Baking soda Acids Age of bean (older bean)

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