Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC): Method of teaching sight words Divide paper into 3 sections. In Section 1, write out list of target words. In Section 2,
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Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC): Method of teaching sight words Divide paper into 3 sections. In Section 1, write out list of target words. In Section 2, write out the words with dotted (dashed) lines. Leave Section 3 blank.
CCC, continued Student looks at first word, traces it in Section 2 while saying letter names. Then covers the first 2 sections and writes word independently in Section 3, while saying letter names. Say name of word and then repeat sequence with second word. Then check acquisition of word in isolation and within a sentence.
And the Research says... Ability to decode is NOT strongly linked to intelligence Working memory (short-term) IS a factor in being able to decode, as is development of phonological awareness Connors et al. (2001)
And the Research says Children with cognitive disabilities do develop PA and it is linked to later reading development. Children with cognitive disabilities may not develop PA in the same sequence as typically developing peers. Research supports explicit teaching of application of PA skills to literacy tasks.
Phonological Awareness Recognizing that speech is made up of words; words are made up of syllables, syllables are made up on individual sounds (phonemes)
Phonological Awareness Is influenced both by heredity and by experience and instruction Is an oral and aural skill Helps students understand the alphabetic principle Has a reciprocal relationship with development of reading skills Children develop PA in the language they first acquire.
Phonemic Awareness: “understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds” (101, Ruetzel & Cooter, 2003) Phonemes – smallest unit of SOUND in a language PA is an oral language activity PA is not phonics
Individuals with well-developed phonemic awareness can: Isolate individual sounds in words Identify common sounds in words Segment sounds in words Categorize sounds in words Delete sounds within words Blend separately spoken sounds into words Substitute sounds within words
Instruction Begin with easier tasks and move to more difficult ones. Make PA instruction a part of the regular school day – no more than 10-15 min a day, even for more intensive instruction. Practice both analytic and synthesis activities Keep it active and fun! Be sure YOU know and articulate sounds correctly and carefully
Possible Sequence of PA Activities/Instruction Rhyming* Sound matching Blending Segmentation Manipulation
When you’re old and think you’re sweet, Just pull off your shoes and smell your feet! Learning to rhyme can be fun and age-appropriate!