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Why is it important to literacy acquisition?

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Presentation on theme: "Why is it important to literacy acquisition?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is it important to literacy acquisition?
Alphabetic Principle What is it? Why is it important to literacy acquisition? LEER MAS Revised 2006

2 Alphabetic Principle Understanding that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words Phonological awareness in combination with letter recognition results in the understanding of the alphabetic principle¾the systematic relationship between individual letters or letter combinations and phonemic segments of spoken words. By consistently using strategies to develop letter knowledge, teachers help children develop concepts that lead to future reading skills. LEER MAS Revised 2006

3 Alphabetic Principle Includes
Recognizing, naming, and producing the letters of the alphabet; Using letter-sound knowledge and syllables to decode written language; Using a variety of syllable strategies to read beginning reading texts; and Using letter-sound knowledge to move towards conventional spelling. Letter recognition involves the ability to associate letter names with their shapes. The ability to rapidly and automatically name letters in kindergarten is predictive of future reading achievement. It also includes identifying upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet. As children learn letter names, they may also begin to connect letters with sounds. Differences between letter names and letter sounds should be established. Letter names are often learned before letter sounds. When children know the sounds of vowels and a few consonants, they can begin to make and decode syllables e.g. ma, me, mi, mo, and mu and then words. LEER MAS Revised 2006

4 GOAL Recognizing, Naming, and Producing the Letters of the Alphabet
Rapidly and accurately identify letters of the alphabet both sequentially and randomly Letter recognition activities can include the Alphabet Mat and Arc, plastic letters and alphabet strips available in Spanish. LEER MAS Revised 2006

The Alphabet Mat and the Alphabet Arc are examples of activities that can help students learn letter names and the sequence of the letters in the alphabet. The Alphabet Mat is designed to enable students to practice matching letters by placing plastic letters on the outline of the letters on the mat. The Alphabet Arc is designed for students who do not need to start with a letter-matching activity. The illustration above is an example of the Alphabet Arc. Both the Alphabet Mat and the Alphabet Arc allow students to practice rapid and accurate identification of letters through a multi-sensory approach—an approach that is critical for beginning readers. It is important to note that the “Real academia de la lengua” requires accents on capital letters. Also, the “ch”, “ll”, “rr” are not included in the Spanish alphabet, however the sounds continue to be an integral part of the phonetic system. Reprinted with permission from Neuhaus Education Center, Bellaire, Texas. LEER MAS Revised 2006

6 Letter-Sound Correspondence Instruction
Is explicit and systematic, Presents initial instruction of vowels associated with syllables, Provides immediate clarification, and Progresses to blending syllables to read words. Explicit and systematic instruction in letter-sound correspondences is one characteristic of effective reading instruction. Initially, the common sounds associated with vowels are presented. If students demonstrate difficulty during guided practice, immediate clarification by modeling correct responses should take place. Letter-sound correspondence instruction progresses to blending syllables to read words. LEER MAS Revised 2006

7 Guidelines for Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence
Teach more frequently-used letters and sounds Establish a logical order of introduction Begin with a productive sequence that permits making and reading syllables and then words as quickly as possible Separate the introduction of auditorily similar letter-sound correspondences Introduce a few letter-sound correspondences at a time Provide many opportunities for practice Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words that students can read and understand. In Spanish, vowels are usually introduced before consonants. For struggling readers in English, it is sometimes helpful to separate and introduce letter sounds with auditorily similar features in different lessons, such as /b/, /d/ and /p/. Once students can reliably identify the sound of a letter, it is helpful to provide opportunities for them to practice discriminating the new sound from other known letter-sound correspondences. LEER MAS Revised 2006

8 Word Study Strategies for Accurate and Fluent Decoding
Blend together all of the syllables in a word Recognize high frequency words Use common spelling patterns Use common syllable patterns Use structural clues (compound words, base words, and inflections) Use knowledge of word order and context to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning As soon as students have learned three or four letter-sound correspondences (including a vowel, syllables), it is important they learn strategies for reading words. Students can use many word study strategies for reading words, such as: Identifying and blending together all of the letter-sound correspondences in words; Recognizing high frequency and irregular words as whole units or being able to read them as sight words; Reading words by blending the initial letter sounds with common spelling patterns; Using common syllable patterns; Using structural clues such as compound words, base words, and inflections; Using knowledge of word order and context to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning; and Knowing the differences in syntax in Spanish and English. LEER MAS Revised 2006

9 Learning to Spell promotes letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness. develops syllable-word knowledge. should be taught explicitly. Phonetic spelling enhances phonological awareness, accelerates conventional spelling, and reveals what students know about sounds and letters. Spelling activities provide opportunities for students to use their phonological knowledge, to connect sounds to print, and to begin writing syllables and words. The more opportunities students have to write, the greater the likelihood that they will reproduce the sounds, syllables, and spellings of words they have heard and seen. Spelling does not develop as a result of just reading and writing. Being able to read words does not necessarily mean students can spell them correctly. LEER MAS Revised 2006

10 Why is Alphabetic Principle Important?
Understanding the alphabetic principle is key to learning to read in a language that is represented by an alphabet (Spanish and English). Research has demonstrated that Spanish successful readers rely primarily on syllable-word correspondences rather than context or pictures to identify familiar and unfamiliar words. Every student must develop the skills that are a part of having a mastery of the alphabetic principle. Understanding the alphabetic principle is key to learning to read in all alphabetic languages. Research has demonstrated that successful readers rely primarily on syllable-word correspondences when decoding familiar and unfamiliar words. LEER MAS Revised 2006

11 Student Expectations for Alphabetic Principle
Prekindergarten (7)-The child begins to associate names of letters with their shapes, identifies 10 or more printed alphabet letters, notices beginning letters in familiar words, makes some letter-sound matches, and begins to identify syllables. K.7-Reading/letter-sound relationships K.14-Writing/spelling penmanship K.15-Writing/composition K.16-Writing/inquiry/research 1.5-Reading/print awareness 1.7-Reading/letter-sound relationships 1.8-Reading/word identification 1.9-Reading/fluency 1.20-Writing/spelling LEER MAS Revised 2006

12 Strategies and Activities to Develop Alphabetic Principle
Letter Recognition Activities Letter-Sound Correspondence Activities Word Study Activities Spelling Activities Letter recognition materials and activities include alphabet books, alphabet lotto, alphabet mats, alphabet blocks, board games, magnetic letters, and alphabet puzzles. Letter-sound correspondence activities should be based on their frequency of use in text and spelling. Avoid the simultaneous introduction of letters that look or sound the same. Word knowledge strategies include making and sorting words and using word walls. Spelling activities include dictating words and/or sentences and having students write them, providing word banks, and teaching students to check and monitor their spelling. Trainer Notes: Refer participants to “Guía de actividades” LEER MAS Revised 2006

13 Monitoring Student Progress
Using formal and informal assessments, regularly monitor the students’ ability to Identify letter names, Make appropriate letter-sound correspondence connections, Make appropriate blending of sounds to form syllables, Decode unfamiliar words, Read single words in isolation, and Read orally with fluency and accuracy. To effectively guide instruction, student progress must be monitored, and this information must be used to plan instruction. Using formal assessments, such as the Tejas LEE, and informal assessments, such as teacher observation and student performance activities, each student’s progress must be monitored to measure his/her ability to rapidly identify letter names; associate correct letter-sound correspondences; make appropriate blending of sounds to form syllables; decode unfamiliar words; read a list of single words in isolation; and read orally with proper fluency and accuracy. LEER MAS Revised 2006

14 Monitoring Student Progress
In the Tejas LEE, alphabetic principle is assessed in the sections called Graphophonemic Knowledge (K) Letter-name identification Letter-to-sound linking Graphophonemic Knowledge (1) Letter-to-sound linking only Sight Words (K) Word Reading (1 and 2) Dictation (2) Reading Accuracy and Fluency (1 and 2) Graphophonemic Knowledge—In this section, kindergarten and first grade students are asked to instantly identify letter names and/or perform a task demonstrating letter-sound correspondence. Word Reading—This task, for first and second grade, assesses a student’s ability to read a list of words in isolation. Reading Accuracy and Reading Fluency—On the first and second grade assessment, a student’s oral reading accuracy and fluency is measured while performing passage reading. LEER MAS Revised 2006

15 Alphabetic Principle Prekindergarten Kindergarten First Grade
Letter Recognition Activities Letter-Sound Matching Activities Letter-Sound Activities to Begin to Read Decoding Practice Using Syllable Knowledge Word Reading Practice Word Study Instruction (spelling patterns, syllable patterns, etc.) Appropriate Beginning Reading Texts Used Explicit Spelling Instruction In Prekindergarten, there should be numerous strategies and activities to promote instant letter name recognition. In kindergarten, as students are ready, the sounds associated with letters should be stressed leading to activities to blend sounds together to read syllables and then words. In first grade, alphabetic principle instruction should be accelerated by direct decoding, word study, and spelling instruction leading to a great deal of practice reading beginning reading texts. LEER MAS Revised 2006

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