2 Survey of Knowledge Alphabetic Principle Phonological Awareness PhonemesPhonemic AwarenessPhonicsOnsetRime2
3 Phonological Awareness A broad term which includes phonemic awarenessIn addition to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with: rhymes, syllables and discrete onset and rimesPhonemic awareness specifically focuses on individual sounds (known as phonemes) in words.Phonological awareness refers to the general understanding of the sound structure of words and sentences.The phoneme level of phonological awareness is the most critical for learning to read.2
4 Phonological Awareness Continuum TypeDescriptionExamples/k/ /a/ /t//sh/ /i/ /p//s/ /t/ /o/ /p//m/ /ice//sh/ /ake//mag/ /net//pa/ /per/The dog ran away.ten tiny tadpolescat, hat, bat, satBlending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken wordsPHONEMESBlending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)ONSETS ANDRIMESBlending syllables to say words orsegmenting spoken words into syllablesSYLLABLESSENTENCE SEGMENTATIONSegmenting sentences into spoken wordsProducing groups of words that begin with the same initial soundMatching the ending sounds of wordsALLITERATIONRHYME
5 Rhyming, Alliteration, and Sentence Segmentation RhymeIs the match between ending sounds of wordsAlliterationFocuses attention on initial phonemesSentence SegmentationHelps students to understand that sentences are composed of separate words that are spoken in a particular order to convey meaning28
6 Syllable Blending and Segmentation Blending syllables together to form words and segmenting words into syllablesSyllables24
7 Blending and Segmentation Onset-RimeBlending and SegmentationOnset: initial consonant or consonants of the wordRime: vowel and consonants that follow the onsetOnsetsRimesandIn the word cat, the /k/ is the onset and the —at is the rime.
10 What We Know from Research Phonemic awareness instruction improves students’ understanding of how the words in spoken language are represented in printPhonemic awareness instruction helps all young students learn to readPhonemic awareness instruction is most effective when students learn to use letters to represent phonemesPhonemic awareness instruction also helps preschoolers, and early primary students.
12 Grouping for Instruction Teach phonemic awareness in small groups.Small-group instruction may be more effective because students benefit from listening to their peers and having more opportunities to participate.
13 Explicit, Systematic Phonemic Awareness Instruction Focus on types of phonemic awareness most closely associated with beginning reading and spelling achievement by linking phonemes to printExplicitly teach phonemic awareness, and regularly schedule instruction34
14 Explicit, Systematic Phonemic Awareness Instruction (cont.) During a lesson, target only one type of phonemic awareness, such as blending phonemes or segmenting words into phonemesBegin with easier activities and progress to more difficult onesModel each activityAs soon as possible, help students make the connection between letters and sounds to read and spell words34
15 Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students Capitalize on native language abilityTeach blending, segmenting, and manipulating individual phonemes and syllablesAccept oral approximationsFocus on words students already know
16 Remember . . .Phonemic awareness “ provides children with essential foundational knowledge in the alphabetic system. It is one necessary instructional component within a complete and integrated reading program.”—National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 8“Adding well-thought-out phonemic awareness instruction to a beginning reading program is very likely to help your students learn to read and spell.”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 9