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Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

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1 Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
This publication is based on K-2 Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

2 Survey of Knowledge Alphabetic Principle Phonological Awareness
Phonemes Phonemic Awareness Phonics Onset Rime 2

3 Phonological Awareness
A broad term which includes phonemic awareness In addition to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with: rhymes, syllables and discrete onset and rimes Phonemic awareness specifically focuses on individual sounds (known as phonemes) in words. Phonological awareness refers to the general understanding of the sound structure of words and sentences. The phoneme level of phonological awareness is the most critical for learning to read. 2

4 Phonological Awareness Continuum
Type Description Examples /k/ /a/ /t/ /sh/ /i/ /p/ /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/ /m/ /ice/ /sh/ /ake/ /mag/ /net/ /pa/ /per/ The dog ran away. ten tiny tadpoles cat, hat, bat, sat Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken words PHONEMES Blending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime) ONSETS AND RIMES Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into syllables SYLLABLES SENTENCE SEGMENTATION Segmenting sentences into spoken words Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound Matching the ending sounds of words ALLITERATION RHYME

5 Rhyming, Alliteration, and Sentence Segmentation
Rhyme Is the match between ending sounds of words Alliteration Focuses attention on initial phonemes Sentence Segmentation Helps students to understand that sentences are composed of separate words that are spoken in a particular order to convey meaning 28

6 Syllable Blending and Segmentation
Blending syllables together to form words and segmenting words into syllables Syllables 24

7 Blending and Segmentation
Onset-Rime Blending and Segmentation Onset: initial consonant or consonants of the word Rime: vowel and consonants that follow the onset Onsets Rimes and In the word cat, the /k/ is the onset and the —at is the rime.

8 Say It and Move It

9 Components of Effective Reading Instruction

10 What We Know from Research
Phonemic awareness instruction improves students’ understanding of how the words in spoken language are represented in print Phonemic awareness instruction helps all young students learn to read Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when students learn to use letters to represent phonemes Phonemic awareness instruction also helps preschoolers, and early primary students.

11 Put Reading First

12 Grouping for Instruction
Teach phonemic awareness in small groups. Small-group instruction may be more effective because students benefit from listening to their peers and having more opportunities to participate.

13 Explicit, Systematic Phonemic Awareness Instruction
Focus on types of phonemic awareness most closely associated with beginning reading and spelling achievement by linking phonemes to print Explicitly teach phonemic awareness, and regularly schedule instruction 34

14 Explicit, Systematic Phonemic Awareness Instruction (cont.)
During a lesson, target only one type of phonemic awareness, such as blending phonemes or segmenting words into phonemes Begin with easier activities and progress to more difficult ones Model each activity As soon as possible, help students make the connection between letters and sounds to read and spell words 34

15 Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students
Capitalize on native language ability Teach blending, segmenting, and manipulating individual phonemes and syllables Accept oral approximations Focus on words students already know

16 Remember . . . Phonemic awareness “ provides children with essential foundational knowledge in the alphabetic system. It is one necessary instructional component within a complete and integrated reading program.” —National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 8 “Adding well-thought-out phonemic awareness instruction to a beginning reading program is very likely to help your students learn to read and spell.” —National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 9

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