Presentation on theme: "Training the Workforce"— Presentation transcript:
1 Training the Workforce CHAPTER 8Training the Workforce
2 Chapter Objectives Review Key Terms Cross-functional Training Recognize the difference between training and developmentUnderstand the Training ProcessDetermine when employees need training and the best type of training given a company’s circumstancesRecognize the characteristics that make training programs successfulDesign job aids as complements or alternatives to trainingUnderstand how to socialize new employees effectivelyReview Key TermsCross-functional TrainingDevelopmentjob aidsRealistic Job PreviewTrainingVirtual Reality
3 Key Training IssuesHow can training keep pace with a changing organizational environment?Should training take place in a classroom setting or on the job?How can training be effectively delivered worldwide?How can training be delivered so that trainees are motivated to learn
4 Training vs. Development The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.Current JobIndividual EmployeesImmediateFix current skill deficitMay be seen as negativeDevelopmentAn effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the futureCurrent and future jobWork group and organizationLong termPrepare for future work demands
5 Challenges in Training Is training the solution to the problem?Are the goals of training clear and realistic?Is training a good investment?Will the training work?
6 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs AssessmentClarifying the objectives of trainingOrganizationalTaskPersonPhase 2 - Training and ConductDirect response to an organizational problem or needApproaches vary by location, presentation, and typePhase 3 - EvaluationEffectiveness of the training is assessed
7 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments:Step 1. Perform a "Gap" Analysis.Current situation (SKA) vs. Desired or necessary situationThe difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.Problems or deficitsImpending changeOpportunitiesStrengthsNew directionsMandated training
8 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments:Step 2. Identify Priorities and Importance.Examine each in view of their importance to your organizational goals, realities, and constraintsCost-effectivenessLegal mandatesExecutive pressurePopulationCustomers
9 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments:Step 3. Identify Causes Of Performance Problems and/or Opportunities.Are our people doing their jobs effectively?Do they know how to do their jobs?
10 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments:Step 4. Identify Possible Solutions and Growth Opportunities.Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem.Organization Development Activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic changestrategic planningorganization restructuringperformance managementeffective team building
11 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or need.Approaches vary byLocationPresentationType
12 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase Location Options – OJTJob rotationMoving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points.ApprenticeshipsA structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.InternshipsAdvantagesCan be inexpensive to implementImmediate feedbackDisadvantagesCan be costly in customer satisfactionWide variation in quality and content of teaching
13 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase Location Options – Off- the-job TrainingSimulated trainingTraining employees on special off-the-job equipment so training costs and hazards can be reduced.Role PlayingCreating a realistic situation in which trainees assume the roles of persons in that situation.Corporate universitiesProvides a means for conveniently coordinating all the company’s training efforts and delivering Web-based modules that cover topics from strategic management to mentoring.In-house development centersA company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills.AdvantagesMore conducive to learning/less distractionsDisadvantagesLearning may not transfer back to job
14 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase Presentation OptionsSlides and VideotapesTeletrainingComputersSimulationsReplicate job demands at off-site facilityVirtual Reality (VR)The use of a number of technologies to replicate the entire real-life working environment in real timeClassroom Instruction and Role-plays
15 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase Types of TrainingSkills Trainingjob aidsExternal sources of information that provide job related informationRetrainingCross-functional TrainingTeam Training
16 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase Types of TrainingCreativity Training – brainstormingLiteracy TrainingDiversity TrainingCrisis TrainingCustomer Service TrainingEthics Training
17 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 - The Evaluation Phase Monetary AssessmentROI (return on investment) of trainingROI = (Training Benefits – Training Costs)/(Training Costs) x 100 = (Net Training Benefits)/(Training Costs) x 100
18 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 The Evaluation Phase – Kirkpatrick Model Level 1: ReactionWere the participants pleased?What do they plan to do with what they learned?Level 2: LearningWhat skills, knowledge, or attitudes have changed?By how much?Level 3: BehaviorDid the participants change their behavior based on what was learned in the program?Level 4: ResultsDid the change in behavior positively affect the organization?
19 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 - The Evaluation Phase Legal Issues in TrainingThe major requirement here is that employees must have access to training and development programs in a nondiscriminatory fashion
20 Orienting Employees Employee orientation Orientation content A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firmOrientation contentInformation on employee benefitsPersonnel policiesThe daily routineCompany organization and operationsSafety measures and regulationsFacilities tour
21 Orienting EmployeesA successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees:Make them feel welcome and at ease.Help them understand the organization in a broad sense.Provide a Realistic Job Preview (RJP)Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior.Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.
23 Chapter Objectives Key Terms Establish a sound process for helping employees develop their careersUnderstand how to develop your own careerIdentify the negative aspects of an overemphasis on career developmentEstablish an organizational culture that supports career developmentKey TermsCareer developmentJob RotationMentoringPromotability ForecastSuccession Planning
24 Term(s) Career development An ongoing and formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers.
25 Challenges in Career Development Who will be responsible?The IndividualThe ManagerThe OrganizationHow much emphasis is appropriate?How will the needs of a diverse workforce be met?
26 Challenges in Career Development The IndividualAccept responsibility for your own careerAssess your interests, skills, and valuesSeek out career information and resourcesEstablish goals and career plansUtilize development opportunitiesTalk with your manager about your careerFollow through on realistic career plans
27 Challenges in Career Development The ManagerProvide timely performance feedbackProvide developmental assignments and supportParticipate in career development discussionsSupport employee development plans
28 Challenges in Career Development The OrganizationCommunicate mission, policies, and proceduresProvide training and development opportunitiesProvide career information and career programsOffer a variety of career options
29 Career Development The Assessment Phase The Direction Phase The Development Phase
30 Career Development The Assessment Phase Self-AssessmentCareer workbooks & Career-planning workshopsSkills AssessmentsInterest InventoryValues Clarification
31 Career Development The Assessment Phase Organizational AssessmentPsychological TestingPerformance AppraisalsAssessment CentersPromotability ForecastSuccession Planning
32 Career Development The Direction Phase Individual Career CounselingInformation ServicesJob-posting systemsSkills inventoriesCareer pathsCareer resource center
33 Career Development The Development Phase Mentoringprocess in which a more experienced person supports and aids a less experienced person in his/her professional or personal developmentJob Rotationindividual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation.also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation.Tuition Assistance Programs
34 Career Development Innovative Corporate Career Development Initiatives Provide each employee with an individual budgetOffer on-site or online career centersEncourage role reversalEstablish a “corporate campus”Help organize “career success teams”Provide career coachesProvide career planning workshopsUtilize computerized on- and offline career development programsEstablish a dedicated facility for career development
35 Career Self-Assessment Does what you’re doing for work resonate with your values?Do you find your work to be meaningful?How does your organization treat you?How do you use your talents at work?What is your manager like?What is your life like?
36 Guidelines for Today’s Leaders Take an entrepreneurial perspectiveEmbrace chaosSome risk is neededBreadth is the keySoft-skills can make or break you
37 Self-Development: Development Suggestions Create your own personal mission statementTake responsibility for your own direction and growthMake enhancement, rather than advancement, your priorityTalk to people in positions to which you aspire and get their suggestions on how to proceedSet reasonable goals
38 Self-Development: Advancement Suggestions Remember that performance in your function is important, but interpersonal performance is criticalSet the right values and prioritiesProvide solutions, not problemsBe a team playerBe customer orientedAct as if what you are doing makes a difference