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Training the Workforce

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Presentation on theme: "Training the Workforce"— Presentation transcript:

1 Training the Workforce
CHAPTER 8 Training the Workforce

2 Chapter Objectives Review Key Terms Cross-functional Training
Recognize the difference between training and development Understand the Training Process Determine when employees need training and the best type of training given a company’s circumstances Recognize the characteristics that make training programs successful Design job aids as complements or alternatives to training Understand how to socialize new employees effectively Review Key Terms Cross-functional Training Development job aids Realistic Job Preview Training Virtual Reality

3 Key Training Issues How can training keep pace with a changing organizational environment? Should training take place in a classroom setting or on the job? How can training be effectively delivered worldwide? How can training be delivered so that trainees are motivated to learn

4 Training vs. Development
The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance. Current Job Individual Employees Immediate Fix current skill deficit May be seen as negative Development An effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future Current and future job Work group and organization Long term Prepare for future work demands

5 Challenges in Training
Is training the solution to the problem? Are the goals of training clear and realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the training work?

6 Managing the Training Process
Phase 1 - Needs Assessment Clarifying the objectives of training Organizational Task Person Phase 2 - Training and Conduct Direct response to an organizational problem or need Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type Phase 3 - Evaluation Effectiveness of the training is assessed

7 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment
Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments: Step 1. Perform a "Gap" Analysis. Current situation (SKA) vs. Desired or necessary situation The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives. Problems or deficits Impending change Opportunities Strengths New directions Mandated training

8 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment
Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments: Step 2. Identify Priorities and Importance. Examine each in view of their importance to your organizational goals, realities, and constraints Cost-effectiveness Legal mandates Executive pressure Population Customers

9 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment
Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments: Step 3. Identify Causes Of Performance Problems and/or Opportunities. Are our people doing their jobs effectively? Do they know how to do their jobs?

10 Managing the Training Process Phase 1 - Needs Assessment
Four Steps to Conducting a Needs Assessments: Step 4. Identify Possible Solutions and Growth Opportunities. Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem. Organization Development Activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change strategic planning organization restructuring performance management effective team building

11 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or need. Approaches vary by Location Presentation Type

12 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
Location Options – OJT Job rotation Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. Apprenticeships A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Internships Advantages Can be inexpensive to implement Immediate feedback Disadvantages Can be costly in customer satisfaction Wide variation in quality and content of teaching

13 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
Location Options – Off- the-job Training Simulated training Training employees on special off-the-job equipment so training costs and hazards can be reduced. Role Playing Creating a realistic situation in which trainees assume the roles of persons in that situation. Corporate universities Provides a means for conveniently coordinating all the company’s training efforts and delivering Web-based modules that cover topics from strategic management to mentoring. In-house development centers A company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills. Advantages More conducive to learning/less distractions Disadvantages Learning may not transfer back to job

14 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
Presentation Options Slides and Videotapes Teletraining Computers Simulations Replicate job demands at off-site facility Virtual Reality (VR) The use of a number of technologies to replicate the entire real-life working environment in real time Classroom Instruction and Role-plays

15 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
Types of Training Skills Training job aids External sources of information that provide job related information Retraining Cross-functional Training Team Training

16 Managing the Training Process Phase 2 - The Training and Conduct Phase
Types of Training Creativity Training – brainstorming Literacy Training Diversity Training Crisis Training Customer Service Training Ethics Training

17 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 - The Evaluation Phase
Monetary Assessment ROI (return on investment) of training ROI = (Training Benefits – Training Costs)/(Training Costs) x 100 = (Net Training Benefits)/(Training Costs) x 100

18 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 The Evaluation Phase – Kirkpatrick Model
Level 1: Reaction Were the participants pleased? What do they plan to do with what they learned? Level 2: Learning What skills, knowledge, or attitudes have changed? By how much? Level 3: Behavior Did the participants change their behavior based on what was learned in the program? Level 4: Results Did the change in behavior positively affect the organization?

19 Managing the Training Process Phase 3 - The Evaluation Phase
Legal Issues in Training The major requirement here is that employees must have access to training and development programs in a nondiscriminatory fashion

20 Orienting Employees Employee orientation Orientation content
A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm Orientation content Information on employee benefits Personnel policies The daily routine Company organization and operations Safety measures and regulations Facilities tour

21 Orienting Employees A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees: Make them feel welcome and at ease. Help them understand the organization in a broad sense. Provide a Realistic Job Preview (RJP) Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior. Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.

22 CHAPTER 9 Developing Careers

23 Chapter Objectives Key Terms
Establish a sound process for helping employees develop their careers Understand how to develop your own career Identify the negative aspects of an overemphasis on career development Establish an organizational culture that supports career development Key Terms Career development Job Rotation Mentoring Promotability Forecast Succession Planning

24 Term(s) Career development
An ongoing and formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers.

25 Challenges in Career Development
Who will be responsible? The Individual The Manager The Organization How much emphasis is appropriate? How will the needs of a diverse workforce be met?

26 Challenges in Career Development
The Individual Accept responsibility for your own career Assess your interests, skills, and values Seek out career information and resources Establish goals and career plans Utilize development opportunities Talk with your manager about your career Follow through on realistic career plans

27 Challenges in Career Development
The Manager Provide timely performance feedback Provide developmental assignments and support Participate in career development discussions Support employee development plans

28 Challenges in Career Development
The Organization Communicate mission, policies, and procedures Provide training and development opportunities Provide career information and career programs Offer a variety of career options

29 Career Development The Assessment Phase The Direction Phase
The Development Phase

30 Career Development The Assessment Phase
Self-Assessment Career workbooks & Career-planning workshops Skills Assessments Interest Inventory Values Clarification

31 Career Development The Assessment Phase
Organizational Assessment Psychological Testing Performance Appraisals Assessment Centers Promotability Forecast Succession Planning

32 Career Development The Direction Phase
Individual Career Counseling Information Services Job-posting systems Skills inventories Career paths Career resource center

33 Career Development The Development Phase
Mentoring process in which a more experienced person supports and aids a less experienced person in his/her professional or personal development Job Rotation individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation. Tuition Assistance Programs

34 Career Development Innovative Corporate Career Development Initiatives
Provide each employee with an individual budget Offer on-site or online career centers Encourage role reversal Establish a “corporate campus” Help organize “career success teams” Provide career coaches Provide career planning workshops Utilize computerized on- and offline career development programs Establish a dedicated facility for career development

35 Career Self-Assessment
Does what you’re doing for work resonate with your values? Do you find your work to be meaningful? How does your organization treat you? How do you use your talents at work? What is your manager like? What is your life like?

36 Guidelines for Today’s Leaders
Take an entrepreneurial perspective Embrace chaos Some risk is needed Breadth is the key Soft-skills can make or break you

37 Self-Development: Development Suggestions
Create your own personal mission statement Take responsibility for your own direction and growth Make enhancement, rather than advancement, your priority Talk to people in positions to which you aspire and get their suggestions on how to proceed Set reasonable goals

38 Self-Development: Advancement Suggestions
Remember that performance in your function is important, but interpersonal performance is critical Set the right values and priorities Provide solutions, not problems Be a team player Be customer oriented Act as if what you are doing makes a difference

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