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Training & Development Definition –“The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance.

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Presentation on theme: "Training & Development Definition –“The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Training & Development Definition –“The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance at work.” –Training skill enhancement processes for non-managerial jobs –Development skill enhancement processes for managerial jobs

2 The Classic Training System Needs assessment Organizational analysis Task/ KSA analysis Person analysis Development of criteria Training objectives Selection & design of training program Training Use of evaluation models Training Validity Interorganizational Validity Intraorganizational Validity Transfer Validity

3 Training Needs Assessment Organizational Analysis –Examines systemwide factors that effect the transfer of newly acquired skills to the workplace Person Analysis –Who needs what kind of training Task Analysis –Provides statements of the activities and work operations performed on the job

4 4 Steps in Task Analysis 1. Develop Task Statements 2. Develop Task Clusters 3. Prepare Knowledge, Skill, & Ability Analysis 4. Determine Relevance of Tasks and KSAs 5. Link Tasks and KSAs

5 Training Objectives Formal description of what trainee should be able to do after training Objectives –Convey training goals –Provide a framework to develop course content –Provide a basis for assessing training achievement Characteristics of effective objectives –Statement of desired capability or behavior –Specify conditions under which behavior will be performed –State the criterion of acceptable performance

6 Considerations in Training Design Designing a learning environment –Learning principlesLearning principles –Trainee characteristicsTrainee characteristics –Instructional techniquesInstructional techniques

7 Phases of Skill Acquisition Acquiring Declarative Knowledge Compilation Back Procedural Knowledge

8 Important Trainee Characteristics Trainee readiness –Trainability tests Have prospective trainees perform a sample of tasks that reflect KSAs needed for job Trainee motivation –Arousal, persistence, and direction –Factors related to high motivation Self-efficacy Locus of Control Commitment to Career Back

9 Instructional Techniques Traditional Approaches –Classroom Instruction Lecture and Discussion Case Study Role Playing –Self-Directed Learning Readings, Workbooks, Correspondence Courses Programmed Instruction –Simulated/Real Work Settings Vestibule training Apprentice training On-the-job training Job Rotation/Cross Training

10 New Training Technologies Distance Learning CD-Rom and Interactive Multimedia Web-based Instruction Intelligent Tutoring Systems Virtual Reality Training

11 Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Criteria Level 1 – Reaction –Did trainees like the training and feel it was useful Level 2 – Learning –Did trainees learn material stated in the objectives Level 3 – Behavioral –Are trainees using what was learned back on the job Level 4 – Results –Are benefits greater than costs

12 Assessing Training Outcomes Goal is to identify training as “cause” of changes in on-the-job behavior or organizational results. Experimental designs help researchers to link training to results There are a number of reasons (threats) why it is difficult to determine impact of training on results –The Wisdom Pill

13 Post with no Control Group TrainingPosttest

14 Pre – Post with no Control Group PretestTrainingPosttest

15 Control Group with no Pretest Experimental Group TrainingPosttest Control GroupPlaceboPosttest Group Differences

16 Pre – Post with Control Group Pretest Experimental Training Posttest PretestControlPosttest Group Differences Group Differences

17 Assessing training program “validity” Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorganizational Validity Interorganizational Validity

18 Managerial Development Critical Managerial Skills (Whetton & Cameron, 1991) –Personal Skills Self-awareness Managing stress Creative problem solving –Interpersonal Skills Communicating supportively Gaining power and influence Motivating others Managing conflict

19 Managerial Developmental Activities Cultural Diversity Training –Goal is to reduce barriers that constrain employee contribution to organizational goals and personal development Attitude change programs Behavioral change programs –Also focus on individual/family cultural adjustment Use social competence as a selection criteria

20 Managerial Developmental Activities Sexual Harassment Training –Quid pro quo harassment sexual compliance is necessary for promotions, raises, or keeping your job –Hostile environment harassment –Training usually involves teaching sensitivity to others values

21 Managerial Developmental Activities 360 degree feedback –increases managers’ self-awareness of strengths and weaknesses Mentoring –Older, more experienced individuals who: serve as role models provide counseling, coaching, and acceptance provide exposure, visibility, and access to challenging developmental assignments

22 Alternative Methods for Enhancing Performance Empowerment –granting employees the autonomy to assume more responsibility within an organization an strengthening their sense of effectiveness Coaching –a conversation that leads to superior performance, commitment to sustained improvement, and positive relationships

23 Empowerment & Coaching Four Factors that Enhance Empowerment –Meaning Employees believe their work is important & meaningful –Competence Employees are capable of performing all the work that must be done –Self-determination Employees have autonomy and are able to use personal initiative in carrying out their work –Impact Control and influence over what happens in one’s organizational unit

24 Empowerment & Coaching 4 Types of coaching –Tutoring Teach employees necessary job skills –Counseling Help employees gain insight into their feelings and behavior –Mentoring help employees gain an understanding of the organization, it goals, and advancement paths & criteria –Confronting Clarify performance standards

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