OS 352 3/13/08 I. Reminder: Exercise 3 due Thurs. after break. II. Coaching & feedback (continued) III. Greenwald article IV. Training V. Development.
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OS 352 3/13/08 I. Reminder: Exercise 3 due Thurs. after break. II. Coaching & feedback (continued) III. Greenwald article IV. Training V. Development
Training Training: An organization’s planned efforts to help ees acquire job-related KSAs and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job. Instructional Design: A process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs.
Examples of Training Formal schooling Team training New employee orientation Safety training Assessment centers Job shadowing On-the-job training Work experience Simulations Sexual harassment training Ropes courses Extreme sports training
Why is training important? Organizational effectiveness Training as a line function Development as ee investment Costly HR activity Avg. 2004 ee expenditure $820 Avg. training amount in 2004: 28 hrs. / ee Legal issues Selection of employees to attend training can not be based upon prohibited characteristics such as race, gender, age, disability, etc. Source: ASTD
The Training Process Needs Assessment Phase Organization Needs Task Needs Person Needs Development and Conduct of Training Location Presentation Type Evaluation
Not all ees are trained equally … Managerial and executive development are allocated the most learning content. Training $s per employee group were greatest for customer service employees. Source: ASTD
Training Program Decisions 1. In-house or contracted out. 2. Training methods. Delivery of information. Location. Content. 3. Trainer characteristics. 4. Design of the training program should be based upon: training needs purpose training transfer and costs v. benefits
Training Transfer On-the-job use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training. What types of training have high transfer rates?
Social Support Enhances Training Transfer Supportive behaviors on the part of managers and peers to trained ees to encourage retention and transfer of training, thereby enhancing the returns to training investments.
Your Turn … (adapted from text) Consider your current job or a job you recently held. What types of training did you receive for the job? What types of training should you have received and why? What types of social support did you receive or should you have received?
Training Evaluation Methods Basic assessment. Example: measuring the satisfaction of training participants at the end of training. Quasi-experimental designs – experiments in real firms using real training programs. Rigor of design is better than basic but less than a true experiment.
Example Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Design Workers from Plant “A” (time 1) TRAINING SESSION Workers from Plant “A” (time 2) Workers from Plant “B” (time 1) NO TRAINING Workers from Plant “B” (time 2) Measure productivity of both groups at both time periods, and compare results.
Trends in Training Performance “consultants” – trainers who assess business needs prior to delivering training. Technology: about 1/3 of training is delivered using technology, primarily on-line training.
Ee Development The combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities, to help ees prepare for the future of their careers.
Assessment Collecting information and providing feedback to ees about their behavior, communication style, or skills. Subordinate and self appraisals Assessment centers (also a selection method) Personality inventories
Assessment Center Assessment process in which multiple raters evaluate ees’ performance on a number of exercises, usually as they work in a group at an off-site location.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Pros Appeals and rings true to managers and ees Facilitates ee understanding of self and team Facilitates communication Cons Low reliability, high risk in selection contexts May lead to stereotyping of individuals according to type May be only indirectly related to tasks, duties at hand
Interpersonal Relationships Mentor An experienced, productive senior ee who helps develop a less experienced ee (protégé) Ees with mentors are more likely to be promoted, earn higher salaries, and have more influence within their firms. Coach A peer or manager who works with an ee to motivate the ee, help ee develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback Little research evidence on effectiveness of coaching for ee development Coach qualifications Personal attention