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Chapter 8 Training and Developing Employees

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1 Chapter 8 Training and Developing Employees

2 Purpose of Orientation
Feel Welcome and At Ease Begin the Socialization Process Understand the Organization Know What Is Expected in Work and Behavior Orientation Helps New Employees

3 The Orientation Process
Company Organization and Operations Safety Measures and Regulations Facilities Tour Employee Orientation Employee Benefit Information Personnel Policies Daily Routine

4 The Training Process Training Training’s Strategic Context
The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. Training’s Strategic Context The firm’s training programs must make sense in terms of the company’s strategic goals. Performance Management Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees’ performance.

5 The Training Process (cont’d)
The Five-Step Training and Development Process 1 3 2 Needs analysis 4 Instructional design 5 Validation Implement the program Evaluation

6 Training, Learning, and Motivation
Make the Learning Meaningful At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented to facilitate learning. Use a variety of familiar examples. Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. Use as many visual aids as possible.

7 Training, Learning, and Motivation (cont’d)
Make Skills Transfer Easy Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. Provide adequate practice. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information that lets trainees know what might happen back on the job.

8 Motivation Principles for Trainers
People learn best by doing—provide as much realistic practice as possible. Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses. Trainees learn best at their own pace. Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. The schedule is important—the learning curve goes down late in the day; less than full day training is most effective.

9 Analyzing Training Needs
Task Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Training Needs Analysis

10 Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs
Performance Appraisals Job-Related Performance Data Observations Interviews Assessment Center Results Individual Diaries Attitude Surveys Tests Methods for Identifying Training Needs

11 Training Methods On-the-Job Training Apprenticeship Training
Informal Learning Job Instruction Training Lectures Programmed Learning Audiovisual Training Simulated Training Computer-Based Training (CBT) Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Distance and Internet-Based Training

12 Training Methods (cont’d)
On-the-Job Training (OJT) Having a person learn a job by actually doing the job. Types of On-the-Job Training Coaching or understudy Job rotation Special assignments Advantages Inexpensive Learn by doing Immediate feedback

13 Programmed Learning Advantages Reduced training time
Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers Advantages Reduced training time Self-paced learning Immediate feedback Reduced risk of error for learner

14 Computer-Based Training (CBT)
Advantages Reduced learning time Cost-effectiveness Instructional consistency Types of CBT Interactive multimedia training Virtual reality training

15 Distance and Internet-Based Training
Teletraining Videoconferencing Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning Portals Distance Learning Methods

16 Management Development
Assessing the company’s strategic needs Developing the managers and future managers Long-Term Focus of Management Development Appraising managers’ current performance

17 Steps in the Succession Planning Process
1 2 Anticipate management needs 3 Review firm’s management skills inventory 4 Create replacement charts Begin management development

18 Management Development (cont’d)
Job Rotation Action Learning Managerial On-the-Job Training Coaching/ Understudy Approach

19 Management Development (cont’d)
Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques The Case Study Method Role Playing Management Games Behavior Modeling Outside Seminars Corporate Universities University-Related Programs Executive Coaches

20 Managing Organizational Change and Development
Strategy Technologies Culture What to Change Structure Employees

21 Managing Organizational Change and Development (cont’d)
Overcoming resistance to change Effectively using organizational development practices The Human Resource Manager’s Role Organizing and leading organizational change

22 How to Lead the Change: Lewin’s Process
Unfreezing Phase Establish a sense of urgency (need for change). Mobilize commitment to solving problems. Moving Phase Create a guiding coalition. Develop and communicate a shared vision. Help employees to make the change. Consolidate gains and produce more change. Refreezing Phase Reinforce new ways of doing things. Monitor and assess progress.

23 Using Organizational Development
Organizational Development (OD) 1 2 Usually involves action research. 3 Applies behavioral science knowledge. Changes the organization in a particular direction.

24 TABLE 8–3 Examples of OD Interventions
Using Organizational Development TABLE 8–3 Examples of OD Interventions Human Process Applications T-groups (Sensitivity Training) Process consultation Third-party intervention Team building Organizational confrontation meeting Survey research Technostructural Interventions Formal structural change Differentiation and integration Cooperative union–management projects Quality circles Total quality management Work design HRM Applications Goal setting Performance appraisal Reward systems Career planning and development Managing workforce diversity Employee wellness Strategic OD Applications Integrated strategic management Culture change Strategic change Self-designing organizations

25 Evaluating the Training Effort
Designing the Study Time series design Controlled experimentation Training Effects to Measure Reaction of trainees to the program Learning that actually took place Behavior that changed on the job Results achieved as a result of the training

26 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 8–5 Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Program’s Effects © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

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