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Lecture Overview Sex and Gender Transvestism & transexuality

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture Overview Sex and Gender Transvestism & transexuality"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture Overview Sex and Gender Transvestism & transexuality
Sexual Orientation: How is it formed? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

2 Sex & Gender: Important/Confusing Terms
Sex: biological maleness or femaleness including chromosomal sex Gender: psychological & sociocultural meanings added to biological sex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

3 Let’s start with Sex: Genetics. X from mother, Y from father
Mullerian ducts = female ; Wollfian ducts= male SRY gene (sex determining region) on Y chromosome ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

4 Dimensions of Sex & Gender
Sex Dimensions Male Female 1. Chromosomes 2. Gonads 3. Hormones 4. External genitals Internal accessory organs XY XX Testes Ovaries Androgens Estrogens,Progesterone Penis, scrotum Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening Prostate, seminal Vagina, uterus, vesicles, fallopian tubes, vas deferens cervix ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

5 Early circulating hormones affect the hypothalamus
Prenatal hormones--affect fetal brain development Do they affect sexual orientation? Do early circulating hormones affect gender identity? (Testosterone aromatizes to Estrogen) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

6 Gender Dimensions Gender identity (self-defined) : Am I a boy or a girl? Gender role ( socially-defined): How shall I behave? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

7 Gender Identity Formation
Gender Identity: self-identification as being either a man or a woman ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

8 Gender Role Development
Gender Role: societal expectations for “appropriate” male & female behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

9 Gender development? Gender labels: Recognize difference between boys and girls ( around 30 months of age) Gender stability: I am a girl and will remain a girl (around 5) Gender constancy: Gender is consistent across all situations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

10 Two Theories of Gender Role Development
Social-learning theory of gender role development: suggests gender roles develop as children: receive rewards &/or punishments for gender role behaviors & attitudes observe & imitate the behaviors & attitudes of others ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

11 Two Theories of Gender Role Development
Gender Schema Theory: combines social learning & cognitive processing; children form gender schemas (mental blueprints) of “correct” behaviors for boys vs. girls ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

12 Theories of Gender Role Development
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

13 Transsexual: mismatch between gender identity& gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organs
Transvestite: individuals who cross-dress for emotional &/or sexual gratification; from Latintrans, meaning “to change,” & vestire, meaning “clothing” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

14 Sex & Gender: Sexual Orientation: primary erotic attraction toward members of same sex (homosexual, gay, or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (heterosexual) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

15 Biology, gender, sexual orientation
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in girls ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

16 Biology, gender, sexual orientation (cont.)
Guevedoce in Dominican Republic AIS (androgen insensitive syndrome) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

17 Amazing case of David Reimer
Money and Ehrhardt, Johns Hopkins Hospital David ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

18 Male External Sex Organs
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

19 Sex Differences Physical anatomy: height, weight, body build, reproductive organs Functional & structural brain differences: hypothalamus corpus callosum cerebral hemispheres ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

21 Gender Differences Cognitive abilities
Women score slightly higher on verbal skills. Men score slightly higher on math & visuospatial skills. Aggression Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness. Women supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

22 Sex & Gender: Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)
Androgyny: combining characteristics typically male (assertive, athletic) with those considered typically female (yielding, nurturing); from Greek andro, meaning “male,” & gyn, meaning “female” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

23 Sexual Behavior: Sexual Orientation
Myths of Homosexuality: Seduction theory--gays & lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of same sex “By default” theory--gays & lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex Poor parenting theory--gay men = domineering mothers, weak fathers; lesbian women = weak or absent mothers Modeling theory--children imitate gay or lesbian parents ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

24 Biological basis of homosexuality
Childhood gender nonconformity Michael Bailey twin studies Simon LeVay and the INAH3 2D :4D ratio ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

25 Yet the environment is important
Bem: traits are inborn and then get labeled and reinforced ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

26 The Study of Human Sexuality
Alfred Kinsey--among the first to use surveys & interviews to study sexual practices & beliefs. Masters & Johnson-- early scientists who used experimentation & direct observation to study the sexual response cycle. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

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