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Presentation on theme: "Gender."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender

2 Gender and sex Sex Biological differences Chromosomal Genetic Gonadal
Gametic Endocrine Phenotypic

3 Gender Psychosocial condition May not correspond sex
Masculine or feminine Behavior Traits Interests May not correspond sex

4 Gender stereotypes Set of belief about what it means to be a man and woman Expected behavior Vary among different society Change constantly Some beliefs are constant regardless of the society Cause of gender bias Different treatment of individual of one sex

5 Societal view of each sex
Interpretation of world Expected behaviors Social shorthand sketch Gender polarization Ambiguity Androgyny Both masculine and feminine characteristics

6 Gender identity Personal view of masculinity and femininity
Based on one’s sex May not be consistent with one’s sex Transsexuals/transgendered Difficult conforming to polarized gender code Could trigger gender identity disorder High level of distress (“woman trapped in a man’s body”)

7 Differences between genders
May not be as clear Large overlap between men and women Display of emotions in men Competitiveness in women Paradox Societal view Individual view

8 Origin of gender Nature Nurture Biological makeup Physical environment
Society Gender-specific behavior patterns

9 Role of hormones Development of sexually dimorphic behavior
Exposure of animals during critical stage of development Neonatal Late fetal Predominant behavior Not exclusive



12 Structural arrangement within the brain
Hypothalamus May not be as reliable predictor of specific behaviors Effects of steroid hormones Stage-specific Critical period

13 Differences in humans Brains Hypothalamus Cortical region
Cognitive differences Gender identity Not large enough to be conclusive Stage of development Cause of differences

14 Greater flexibility and overlapped behavior in humans
Effects of hormones Tomboyism in adrenogenital syndrome girls Does not persist Behave as normal adult females Greater flexibility and overlapped behavior in humans

15 Effects of social learning
Assignment of baby View of individual View of society Behavior of adult Based on perceived sex of baby Expectation of certain behviors Interpretation of baby’s behavior based on its perceived sex

16 Gender constancy Effects of society
Fixed gender that cannot be changed Effects of society Mass media Peers Household

17 Social learning theory
Learning gender role Shaped by events in the surrounding environment Response of others Reinforcement Punishment Role modeling

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