Presentation on theme: "Poetry 1: Identity & Family"— Presentation transcript:
1 Poetry 1: Identity & Family Tone, Sound and Free VerseIntro to LitImage source
2 Outline General Questions Understanding the Poems’ Poetic Language 3 Gwendolyn Brooks "We Real Cool" (1960 p. 534) 6 Emily Dickinson "I'm Nobody! Who are you?" (1861 p. 683)4 Walt Whitman “A Noiseless Patient Spider” (1891 p. 659)5/2 Adrienne Rich “Aunt Jennifer’s Tiger”1 Robert Hayden “Those Winter Sundays”Lynn Lifshin “My Mother and the Bed”Quiz 1 – Tone, Sound, Free Verse and LyricEssay Questions and Review
3 General Questions What is ‘identity’? What determines our identities? TextIdentityFactors“Story of an Hour”GenderCreole society in New Orleans + marriage“Rose for Emily”The American South + industrialism“Old Man with Enormous Wings”“Alien”/AgeReligion + seaside village“Araby”Age/GenderReligion vs. Commercialism + Dublin’s social problem“A & P”Class/GenderSmall town America + commercial societyPygmalionLate Victorian society + English
4 General Questions What is ‘identity’? What determines our identities? TextIdentityFactors“We Real Cool”Collective“Cool” ActionsBlack“I’m Nobody. Who Are you?”Private and AssociativeSocial visibility“A Noiseless Patient Spider”Soul -- AssociativeVast surrounding“Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”GenderFamily labor and death“Those Winter Sundays”FamilialFamily poverty and paternal care; Black“My Mother and the Bed”Daily order and maternal careBlackSelf
5 General QuestionsAre parents always loving? What makes their love difficult to express, or 'difficult' for their children to understand?
6 From Paraphrasing, Analysis to Application Understanding PoetryFrom Paraphrasing, Analysis to Application
7 "We Real Cool" (1960 p. 685) The Pool Players. Seven at the Golden Shovel.We real cool. WeLeft school. WeLurk late. WeStrike straight. WeSing sin. WeThin gin. WeJazz June. WeDie soon.alliterationinternal rhymesrepetitionsStrike straight:1) attacking others;2) play billiard ballsJazz:1) empty talk to or sex with a woman named June;2) going here and there in June?
8 "We Real Cool" Paraphrasing Analysis (1) Connotation: Speakers’ identity? Why “cool”?Analysis (2) Poetic Language: Their tone? How do the stress and sound Pattern help convey the meaning? Symbol-- Golden Shovel?Analysis (3) What is “cool” for you? Does developing a group identity matter for you?
9 I'm Nobody! Who are you? I'm Nobody! Who are you? Are you--Nobody--too?Then there's a pair of us!Don't tell! they'd banish us—you know!How dreary--to be--Somebody!How public--like a Frog--To tell your name--the livelong June--To an admiring Bog!repetitionsalliterationIambic meter
10 I'm Nobody! Who are you? Paraphrasing Analysis (1) Connotation: Speakers’ identity? That of “you”? The differences between nobody and somebody?Analysis (2) Poetic Language: The speaker’s tone in the 1st and 2nd stanzas? The use of dashes? The metaphor of bog and frog.Analysis (3) Do you like to be a somebody, or nobody? Or neither? What do you feel about the speaker’s criticism of “somebody” like a frog?
11 Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) A reclusive poet with mental energies. produced 1,775 known poems as well as the hundreds of letters. Only 7 (or 11) of the poems were published anonymously in her lifetime.a traumatic experience (between 1858 and 1862)Stayed in her own house for the last seventeen years of her life.Film: Emily Dickinson: The Poet In Her Bedroom
12 A noiseless patient spider Walt Whitman "A Noiseless Patient Spider “Poem animationA noiseless patient spiderA noiseless patient spider,I mark'd where on a little promontory (隆突) it stood isolated,Mark'd how to explore the vacant vast(1) surrounding,It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of it self,Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them. (2)And you O my soul where you stand,Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking (3) the spheres to connect them,Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile (柔軟的) anchor hold,Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul. (4) (1. consonance, 2, assonance, 3. internal rhyme, 4. alteration between troche and dactyl. reference)repetitionsFeminine rhymeSounds: “l,” “s,” open vowels e.g. “o”
13 A Noiseless Patient Spider ParaphrasingAnalysis (1) Connotation: What are the implications in comparing the soul to a spider? How are the activities of the spider similar to and different from those of the soul? The effects of the speaker’s apostrophizing (頓呼) the soul ("O my soul")?Analysis (2) Poetic Language: The sound and line patterns? The form of free verse.Analysis (3) If you want to compare yourself, or your mind, to an animal, which would you choose and why?
14 Walt WhitmanA printer, teacher, journalist poet hospital worker, government clerk, later fired because of his poetry.Publishes Leaves of Grass in 1855, later revised 8 times.A free thinker, sometimes without regular jobs. (source)portrait: from an 1854 engraving by Samuel Hollyer
15 Aunt Jennifer's TigersrhymesAunt Jennifer‘s tigers prance across a screen, Bright topaz (黃水晶) denizens of a world of green. They do not fear the men beneath the tree; They pace in sleek chivalric certainty. Aunt Jennifer's finger fluttering through her wool Find even the ivory needle hard to pull. The massive weight of Uncle's wedding band Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer's hand. When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid.Alliteration, ‘p’ sound
16 Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Paraphrasing Analysis (1) Connotation: The relations between Aunt Jennifer, her fingers, wedding ring and her tigers– with pace "in sleek chivalric certainty.“ Analysis (2) Poetic Language: the use of tiger and wedding ring as symbols.Analysis (3) How much can the embroidered tigers represent aunt Jennifer? Do you have relatives like her?
17 "Those Winter Sundays" (1962) alliteration, explosive soundsSundays too my father got up earlyand put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,then with cracked hands that achedfrom labor in the weekday weathermade banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.When the rooms were warm, he'd call,and slowly I would rise and dress,fearing the chronic angers of that house. Speaking indifferently to him,who had driven out the coldand polished my good shoes as well,What did I know, what did I knowof love's austere and lonely offices? [rituals, ceremonious]Open vowels;Long and short lines
18 "Those Winter Sundays" -- ParaphrasingAnalysis (1) Connotation: the contrast between the past view and the present one about the speaker’s father and his work.Analysis (2) Poetic Language: descriptions of the cold and the house. Sound pattern.Analysis (3) Does it matter to you whether you know of the poet’s background? Is the poem relevant to you?
19 “My Mother and the Bed” No, not that way she'd No, not that way she'dsay when I was 7, pullingthe bottom sheet smooth.You've got to, sayinghospital corners I wet the bed much laterthan I should, untiljust writing this Ihadn't thought ofthe connection
20 “My Mother and the Bed” (2) Smelled of smoke butshe says the rooms heresmell funny We drove at 3 amslowly into Boston andstrip what looked liketwo clean beds as thesky got light. ISmoothed on the formfitted flower bottom,she redid it. She thinks of my lifeas a bed only shecan make rightMy mother would neversleep on sheets someoneelse had. I neversaw any stains on herstho her bedroom was a maze of powder, hairPins, black dressesShe used to bring herown sheets to my house,carried toilet seat covers. Lyn, did anybody sleepin my, she always askedHer sheets, her hair
21 “My Mother and the Bed” Paraphrasing Analysis (1) Connotation: What’s the mother’s long-term influence on the daughter and her responses to it?Analysis (2) Poetic Language: How do the poetic form and the images convey the meanings?Analysis (3) How do you feel about your parents’ ways of disciplining or educating you?
22 Understanding Poetic Language Quiz 1: Sound and Sense
23 1. Which of the following is NOT a free verse? 1. Aunt Jennifer's finger fluttering through her wool Find even the ivory needle hard to pull.2. It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of it self,Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them3. No, not that way she'dsay when I was 7, pullingthe bottom sheet smooth.You've got to, sayinghospital corners 4. I'm Nobody! Who are you?Are you--Nobody--too?Then there's a pair of us!Don't tell! they'd banish us—you know!<PowerClick><Answer>1</Answer><Option>4</Option><Point>2</Point></PowerClick>
24 Free VerseA poetic form that does not rhyme, nor use the metrical patterns of traditional poetry. Rather, it establishes its own patterns.It is unrhymed, with no regular line length.It has rhythmical lines varying in length.Its patterns produced through repetition of words, sounds and/or parallel grammatical structure.
25 2. Which of the following is an adequate description of the poem’s sound effects? The explosive sounds in “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers” create a sense of hardship. (“Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen, Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen”)The long and open vowels in “A Noiseless Patient Spider” (“Till the bridge you will need be formed, till the ductile anchor hold,/Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere ”) produces a sense of continuity.The dashes in “I’m Nobody. Who are you?” (e.g. “Are you – Nobody – too? ”) create a sense of continuity and calmness.<PowerClick><Answer>2</Answer><Option>3</Option><Point>2</Point></PowerClick>
26 Sound & SenseDifferent sounds create different effects in different contexts. In generaleasily pronounced consonants (e.g. [l], [r], [m], [n]) and open and long vowels can be create a sense of ease or fluidityExplosive sounds ([t], [d], [g], [k],[p] [b]), sometimes combined with short vowels, can create a sense of vitality or difficulty.nasal sounds ([m] & [n]) can create a sense of melancholy
27 3. Which of the following is NOT part of the functions of an apostrophe (頓呼; “O my soul”)? To compare the object to another objectTo personify the object addressedTo bring it (the absent object) to presenceTo show respect to the object.<PowerClick><Answer>1</Answer><Option>4</Option><Point>2</Point></PowerClick>
28 Apostrophe-- figure of speech in which an absent person, a personified inanimate being, or an abstraction is addressed as though present;-- the poet talks to (and personifies) the one addressed.
29 4. Which of the following is not part of the poetic sound pattern to consider? Repetition of consonants (consonance) or assonants (assonants)Rhyme: alliteration, end rhyme and internal rhymeStresses put on different syllables (e.g. iambic)The pauses in the poetic lines.All of the above.<PowerClick><Answer>5</Answer><Option>5</Option><Point>2</Point></PowerClick>
30 Rhyme & Rhythm (e.g. iambic pentameter 抑揚五音步 reference) Rhyme is a sound device that usually entails the repetition of the final vowel and consonant sounds in two words.internal rhyme: Some poems have rhymes within the lines. This is called.Assonance is the repetition of vowels sounds, either at the beginning of words or within words.Head rhyme: Alliteration is related to assonance in that alliteration also involves the repetition of sounds, this time the repetition of consonants at the beginning or middle of words.Meter (韻律): a regularly repeating rhythm, divided for convenience into feet (音步). Meter describes an underlying framework; actual poems rarely sustain the perfect regularity that the meter would imply.(e.g. iambic pentameter 抑揚五音步 reference)
31 5. Which of the following descriptions of the speakers in the poems we have read is INCORRECT? The speaker of “Those Winter Sundays” describes his childhood in retrospect.The speakers of “We Real Cool” boast about their identity.The speaker of “I’m Nobody. Who are you?” is snobbish.The speaker of “A Noiseless Patient Spider” cherishes his/her own mental actions.<PowerClick><Answer>3</Answer><Option>4</Option><Point>2</Point></PowerClick>
32 LyricThe most personal of poetic forms, lyric is usually a short but intense expression of personal feelings. Although it is originally sung to the music of a lyre, not all lyrics are to be sung. Still, musical quality can be found in some of the poems we have read (e.g. “A Noiseless Patient Spider”).Although it involves personal expressions, the speaker of a lyric is not necessarily the poet.
33 Conclusion Understanding the parents: Aging and Death “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers“ – hardship and survival"Musical Key" by Cowboy Junkies -- care“Those Winter Sundays” – hardship and stern care“My Mother and the Bed” – care and over-controlAging and Death“My Mother and the Bed” turned into past tense.“Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night” [later]
34 Essay Question 1 1. Family Influences: So far we have read several texts where parent-children relationships or family background is a major factor in a child’s growth (i.e. “Araby,” Pygmalion, “Those Winter Sundays,” “My Mother and the Bed” and “Musical Key”).How do the children in the short story, play, poems and song relate to their parents’ ways of educating or NOT educating them? (What do the parents do? How do the children take it and how do they express their understanding of their parents? Is there communication between/among them? Is their communication [or lack of it] related to their social background?) Do the children grow in the texts?Compare Pygmalion with at least one of the other texts (either a story, a poem or the song).
35 Essay Question 22. Children or Young People’s Views of their Society and Identity:In the texts narrated or spoken by a child or a teenager, how does their point of view influence their views of their society/world and their sense of identity? In what ways are they biased? Do they learn to change or correct their views in the text? Please choose one story and one poem/song from the following: “A&P,” “Fast Cars,” “We Real Cool.”
36 Essay Question Suggested order of your answer-- Specify your topic if you are given a choice. Give a thesis statement as a direct answer to the question/topic.Support your thesis statement by giving specific examples from the text and analyzing them.
37 In analyzing a short story, you don't need to summarize the plot, but you need to discuss how the theme (characters) you deal with develop in the different parts of the novel. In analyzing a poem, you don’t need to paraphrase it.Conclude by summarizing your main points and discussing your thesis a bit more.
38 ReviewQuestions—Personal Views, Sound and Line Pattern, connections between the poem and the poet.Close Reading: Sound Effect, Sound Pattern, (consonance, assonance and alliteration) Line Length, Line End and Sentence EndLyric