Qualitative Research Qualitative research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that cannot be meaningfully quantified, that is, summarized.
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Qualitative Research Qualitative research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that cannot be meaningfully quantified, that is, summarized in the form of numbers
Importance of Qualitative Research Works better if the purpose of the research is to understand a problem or to develop “new product concepts” Can be viewed as generating just the right type of raw material needed to produce a finished product in the form of a relevant quantitative research project
Focus Group Interviews 6 to 12 individuals Moderator (a well-trained researcher) Informal discussion about research topic individuals moderator discussion
Conducting Focus Groups Focus group sessions typically last 1 1/2 to 2 hours Focus group interviews are often recorded: audio tapes or videotapes
Group Composition Generally, focus groups conducted by marketing research practitioners involve between 6 and 12 participants Homogeneous or not : Your choice.
Moderator Tasks Guide discussion Ensure key aspects of the topic that are discusses Ensure everybody is involved
Desirable Focus Group Moderator Skills Kind but firm Permissive Involved Incomplete understanding Encouragement Flexibility Sensitivity
Developing a Moderator Guide After describing the room, the clients and the policy regarding payment or gifts, talk about some general rules of communication. Next, have people introduce themselves and answer a pointed question (e.g., How many phones do you have) Start broad, get more focused with time. Determine whether it is a branded or unbranded study. Have a pen and paper thought generation task at the beginning if possible.
Sentence Completion Test Respondents are asked to finish a set of incomplete sentences, often related or neutral to the topic of interest To uncover feelings about “Buying American” – American automobiles – Restrictions on imports – Every U.S. citizen – Foreign-made products – Unemployment in the U.S
“I think the Nike ads that say, ‘Just do it’ are...” “I think Nike...” “When I feel a real need to treat myself, I...” “If it’s lunchtime, and I have a choice between McDonald’s, Burger King, and Wendy’s, I’ll choose ____ because...” “My favorite restaurant is ____ because...”
Developing a Mod Guide Make sure questions are not answerable with a simple “yes” or “no”. Have at least one “natural” point where the moderator leaves the room, one mid-way through, one near the end. This might be during a video or during a written survey. This permits a discussion with the client to discuss areas for further questioning, as well as time concerns. Note, while people may leave the room to use “facilities”, normally there is not a break.
Understanding Consumers Pillsbury, a manufacturer of cake mixes, is always interested in questions such as: – What do consumers like about baking? – What do they dislike? – Why do they bake? – How do they bake? – What words/terms do they use in describing baking products and their use? Focus groups will be helpful in this situation to get a feeling for consumers' perceptions, opinions, and behavior concerning cake mixes
Focus Groups and Depth Interviews Focus Groups Group dynamics, expect more creative Some probing Relatively inexpensive Ready industry Interviews Not influenced by others Max probing, great depth Expensive Time consuming Candid, sensitive topics Qualitative Flexible Probing Richness of data Gets at the “Why” of customers’ behaviors Generates ideas Clarifies other project results
Qualitative Research Analysis Transcribe audio or video tapes. Carefully and Individually review the written statements and visuals from interviews. As a group, discuss the main findings and summarize them (Always provide support to your claim through statements from the respondents)
Examples VP Marketing for the Montreal Canadiens (NHL) – “It is the strongest sports brand in Canadian history…Our team represents the dreams and hopes of the people from Quebec…We have one of the nicest jerseys and logos in the NHL, Why would we change anything…”
Examples Sport Equipment manufacturer and distributor. – «The team has not changed their jersey for years. This means no new offering to the fans: the jersey they bought ten years ago is still good today. Furthermore, not changing the team jersey that is associated with the glory of the past is not coherent with today’s team performance on the ice, what the brand stands for and who their primary target is. It is alright to emphasize nostalgia when you are targeting older customers, but not when you are approaching younger customers, as the team is»