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Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Measures

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1 Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Measures
Chapter 8 Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Measures

2 Research Quantitative research: research involving the use of structured questions in which response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents involved Qualitative research: research involving collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say, an other informal research techniques (“soft” research) Pluralistic research: combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methods in order to gain the advantages of both

3 Observation Techniques
Observation methods: techniques in which the researcher relies on his or her powers of observation rather than communicating with a person in order to obtain information Types of observation: Direct versus indirect Disguised versus undisguised Structured versus unstructured Human versus mechanical

4 Observation Techniques…cont. Direct versus Indirect
Direct observation: observing behavior as it occurs Indirect observation: observing the effects or results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself Archives Physical traces Structured versus unstructured Human versus mechanical

5 Observation Techniques…cont. Disguised versus Undisguised
Disguised observation: subject is unaware that he or she is being observed Undisguised observation: respondent is aware of observation

6 Observation Techniques…cont. Structured versus Unstructured
Structured observation: researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are to be observed and recorded Unstructured observation: No restriction is placed on what the observer would note: all behavior in the episode under study is monitored

7 Observation Techniques…cont. Human versus Mechanical
Human observation: observer is a person hired by the researcher, or, perhaps the observer is the researcher Mechanical observation: human observer is replaced with some form of static observing device

8 Observation Techniques…cont.
Appropriate Conditions for the Use of Observation Short duration Public Faulty recall conditions

9 Observation Techniques…cont. Advantages of Observational Data
Insight into actual, not reported, behaviors No chance for recall error Better accuracy Less cost

10 Observation Techniques…cont. Limitations of Observational Data
Small number of subjects Subjective interpretations Inability to pry beneath the behavior observed Motivations, attitudes, and other internal conditions are unobserved

11 Focus Groups Focus groups: small group discussions led by a trained moderator Objectives: Generate ideas Understand consumer vocabulary Reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes on products and services Understand findings from quantitative studies

12 Moderator’s Role and Responsibilities
Focus Groups Moderator’s Role and Responsibilities Focus group moderator: a person who conducts the entire sessions and guides the flow of group discussion across specific topics desired by the client Characteristics: Experienced Enthusiastic Prepared Involved Energetic Open-minded

13 Reporting and Use of Focus Group Results
Focus Groups Reporting and Use of Focus Group Results Factors to remember when analyzing data: Some sense must be made by translating the qualitative statements of participants into categories and then reporting the degree of consensus apparent in the focus groups Demographics and buyer behavior characteristics of focus group participants should be judged against the target market profile to assess what degree the groups represent the target market A focus groups analysis should identify major themes as well as salient areas of disagreement among the participants

14 Focus Groups Online Focus Groups
Online focus group: one in which the respondents and/or clients communicate and/or observe by use of the Internet Advantages: No physical setup is necessary Transcripts are captured on file in real time Participants can be in widely separated geographical areas Participants are comfortable in their home or office environments The moderator can exchange private messages with individual participants

15 Online Focus Groups…cont.
Disadvantages: Observation of participants’ body language is not possible Participants cannot physically inspect products or taste food items Participants can lose interest or become distracted

16 Focus Groups Advantages: Generation of fresh ideas Client interaction
Versatility Ability to tap special respondents Disadvantages: Representative of the population? Subjective interpretation High cost-per-participant

17 Other Qualitative Research Techniques
Depth interview: is a set of probing questions posed one-on-one to a subject by a trained interviewer so as to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves a certain way Protocol analysis: involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything he or she considers when making a decision

18 Other Qualitative Research Techniques…cont.
Projective techniques: involve situations in which participants are placed in (projected into) simulated activities in the hopes that they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning Word association test Sentence completion Picture test Cartoon or balloon test Role-playing activity

19 Physiological Measurements
Physiological measurements: involves monitoring a respondent’s involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via the use of electrodes and other equipment. Pupilometer Galvonometer

20 Video: Focus Group Part I

21 Case 8.2 Hobbit’s Choice Please read and study Case 8.2 on p. 235.
Answer questions #1, #2, and #3.

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