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Types of Research Design and Exploratory Research Chapter 4.

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1 Types of Research Design and Exploratory Research Chapter 4

2 Three types of research design Exploratory design Major emphasis: gaining ideas and insights Descriptive design Major emphasis: determining the frequency with which something occurs Causal design Major emphasis: determining cause-and- effect relationships

3 There are no absolute distinctions among the three Principle: The design of the investigation should stem from the problem Productivity of a research design depends on how skillfully it is applied Three basic designs are stages in a continuous process. Each stage represents the investigation of a more detailed statement of the problem

4 Relationships Among the Research Designs Descriptive Research Exploratory Research Causal Research

5 Brand X’s share of disposable diaper market is decreasing. WHY? too broad to serve as a guide for research Exploratory research to narrow and refine a possible explanation emerged– brand X is economy priced, families with small children have more real income today and are willing to pay more Descriptive study of trends in baby products industry preference, willingness to pay more data Test market to determine market acceptance of a high priced high quality diapers actual purchase data

6 Exploratory Research Basic uses  Better understanding of the situation  Clarify concepts  Not designed to come up with final answers and decisions  Formulate a problem for more precise investigation  Develop hypotheses  Establish priorities for further research Key Characteristics  Small scale  Flexibility

7 Literature Search Depth Interviews Focus Groups Nominal Groups Case Analyses Projective Methods Types and Some Key Characteristics of Exploratory Studies

8 Literature Search  A search of statistics, trade journal articles, other articles, magazines, newspapers, and books for data or insight into the problem at hand Depth Interviews  Interviews with people knowledgeable about the general subject being investigated Focus Groups  An interview conducted among a small number of individuals simultaneously Types of Exploratory Research

9 Nominal Groups  A group interview technique which initially limits respondent interaction to a minimum while attempting to maximize input from individual group members Case Analysis  Intensive study of selected examples of the phenomenon of interest Projective Methods  Methods that encourage respondents to reveal their own feelings, thoughts, and behaviors by shifting the focus away from the individual through the use of indirect tasks Types of Exploratory Research

10 Focus Groups Extremely popular research technique Format  Typically 8-12 people  Homogeneous within group  1.5 to 2 hours in length  Sessions recorded and transcribed Key person: the moderator

11 Two Major Pitfalls to Avoid with Focus Groups It is easy for managers see what they expect to see in focus group results Focus groups are one form of exploratory research – it (or any other type of exploratory research) should not be expected to deliver final results or answers to decision problems – yet many managers seem to use them for that purpose

12 Projective techniques Word Association Subjects respond to a list of words with the first word that comes to mind traffic _______, lakes _______, smokestacks _______, city _______ government _______, margarine _______, blue jeans _______ Elapse of time before a response is given, frequency of a word given as a response, number of no responses showing level of emotional involvement Sentence Completion Subjects complete a number of sentences with the first thought that comes to mind When I think of living in a city _____________________________________ People who are concerned about ecology _____________________________ Storytelling TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) a pictorial device which consists of copyrighted series of pictures

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