Agenda Exploratory Research –Qualitative vs quantitative –Projective techniques –Focus groups.
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Agenda Exploratory Research –Qualitative vs quantitative –Projective techniques –Focus groups
Narrowing down your topic Area of Interest Research Questions Research Objectives EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
Exploratory research and qualitative analysis From total ambiguity to not quite total ambiguity
Exploratory research Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem often a first and preliminary step may be a single investigation or a series of informal studies may be a single technique or a combination of techniques almost always qualitative
Definitions Quantitative: studies that use mathematical analysis that can reveal statistically significant differences Qualitative: research data not subject to quantification
Advantages cheaper can help identify small problems with significant impact motivations/ feelings improve efficiency of quantitative Limitations does not distinguish small differences not necessarily representative of population very dependent upon skill of researcher Qualitative
Why conduct exploratory research Diagnosis screening alternatives discovering new ideas I wonder...
Types Secondary Research Depth Interviews Focus groups Projective techniques
Indirect means of questioning that enables a respondent to “project” beliefs and feelings onto a third person, onto an inanimate object or into a task situation assumes that people are reluctant, unaware or unable to relate their true experiences, perceptions or beliefs
“A man is least himself when he talks in his own person; when given a mask he will tell the truth.” --Oscar Wilde
Common types Word association –subject is presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked to respond with the first word that comes to mind. Sentence/story completion –respondent completes a sentence or story with the first word or phrase that comes to mind.
Word Association Examples CHEESE Kraft Cheddar Goat
Sentence Completion People who drink beer are ______________________ A man who drinks light beer is ___________________ Imported beer is most liked by ___________________ A woman will drink beer when____________________
Common types Third person techniques –subject is asked why a third person behaves in a certain fashion or what s/he thinks about a particular event/object/activity –role playing: the acting out of third person’s behaviour
Common types Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) –A series of pictures are shown to subject who is then asked to provide a description of the pictures. –Cartoon completion tests –Photo sorts Consumer drawings
Focus Groups Defined Focus groups had their beginnings in group therapy used by physicians. Today, a focus group consists of 8 to 12 participants led by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on one particular topic or concept.
Most frequently used to conduct exploratory research May also be used after a survey or quantitative study to clarify findings –Quantitative research tends to be long on what and short on why
Types of Focus Groups Focus groups that explore subconscious motivation Focus groups that explore subconscious motivation Focus groups that enable a client to observe and listen to how consumers think and feel about products and services Focus groups that enable a client to observe and listen to how consumers think and feel about products and services ExploratoryClinicalExperiencing Focus groups that aid in the precise definition of the problem, in pilot testing, or in generating hypotheses for testing or concepts for further research
Steps in Conducting a Focus Group Prepare for the Group: Select a focus group facility and recruit the participants Select a Moderator: Create a discussion guide Conduct the Group Prepare the Focus Group Report
Focus Groups: Key Terms Focus Group Facility –Facility consisting of conference or living room setting and a separate observation room. Facility also has audiovisual recording equipment. –Not all focus groups are conducted in this contrived setting.
Focus Groups: Key Terms Focus Groups Composition –The ideal size is 6-10 participants. –Homogenous groups seem to work best Focus Groups Moderator –The person hired by the client to lead the focus group. This person may need a background in psychology, sociology, or marketing.
Focus Groups: Key Terms Discussion Guide –A written outline of topics to cover during a focus group discussion. –Contains prefatory remarks to inform the group about he nature of the focus group and an outline of topics/questions to be addressed
Disadvantages of Focus Groups The immediacy and apparent understandability of focus group findings can mislead instead of inform. Focus group recruiting is a problem if the type of person recruited responds differently to the issues being discussed than other target segments.
“Moderator style” may contribute to respondent bias. Respondents can be a problem if they are overly introverted (and do not speak) or are overly dominating (and try to sway the discussion). This can also lead to a halo effect
Trends in Focus Groups Telephone Focus Groups –Focus groups that are conducted via conference calling. Two-Way Focus Groups –A target focus group observes another focus group, and then discussed what it learned through observing.
Nominal Grouping Session –Qualitative research method in which consumers, brought together in small groups, independently generate ideas about a subject and then discuss the ideas. Internet based focus groups –what are some advantages and disadvantages