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Qualitative Techniques in Marketing Research

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Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Techniques in Marketing Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Qualitative Techniques in Marketing Research
A Presentation for the Marketing Research module

2 "A qualitative observation identifies the presence or absence of something, in contrast to quantitative observation, which involves the degree to which something is present " (MARKETECK, 2009)


4 Qualitative Research... Is any research conducted using an observational technique or unstructured questioning. Conducted: when structured research is not possible, when true response may not be available [embarrassing “touchy questions”] to explain quantitative research results.


6 Examples of Methods

7 Most Common Methods in Marketing Research

8 Classification of Observation
Qualitative research Observation techniques Classification of Observation Direct vs indirect: Direct = observing behavior as it occurs Indirect = observing the effects of behavior Disguised vs nondisguised Nondisguised =Direct Disguised = Indirect Structured vs unstructured Structured = predetermine what to observe Unstructured=monitor all behavior Human vs Mechanical Human=observation done by human beings Mechanical=observation by machine

9 Not Always Appropriate!!

10 Observation Appropriate Conditions
The event must occur in a short time interval, Avoid lag affect Must occur in a setting where the researcher can observe the behavior Praying, cooking are not suitable things to observe Necessary under situations of faulty recall Faulty recall - remembering things such as how many times one looked at his wristwatch.

11 Observation: Advantages and Limitations
Greater data accuracy than direct questioning, in natural settings people behave naturally, Problems of refusal, not at home, false response, non- cooperation etc. are absent, No recall error, In some situations, only way Number of customers visiting a store Studying children’s behavior Limitations Time consuming, too many things to observe, may not be representative, difficulty in determining root cause of the behavior.

12 Focus Group An interview conducted by a trained moderator
in a non-structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. Group size Group composition Homogenous, respondents prescreened Physical setting Relaxed, informal setting Time duration hours Recording Use of audio and video cassettes Moderator Observational, interpersonal, good communication skills needed. 12

13 Focus Groups Objectives: - Generate new product or service ideas
Understand consumer vocabulary Useful for ad campaigns Reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions and attitudes, Generating future research objectives Facilitate understanding of quantitative studies 13

14 Major Advantages: Major Disadvantages:
Focus Group: Advantages and Disadvantages Major Advantages: Synergism, Snowballing, Stimulation, Security, Spontaneity, Speed and Cost savings. Major Disadvantages: Lack of representativeness, Misuse, Misjudge, Moderation problem, and Difficulty of analysis 14

15 Seven advantages of Focus Group I

16 Seven advantages of Focus Group

17 Five Disadvantages of Focus Group

18 Other Qualitative Techniques
Depth Interview: An unstructured interview that seeks opinions of respondents on a one-to-one basis. Useful for sensitive issues, politics etc. Protocol Analysis: Involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him/her to state everything he/she considers in making a decision. Useful in 1. Purchasing involving a long time frame (car, house) and 2. Where the decision process is too short (greeting card). Projective technique: Involve situations in which participants are placed in simulated activities hoping that they will divulge information about themselves that are unlikely to be revealed under direct questing. 18

19 Example: Delphi technique for Retail Food

20 Projective Techniques
These are indirect interviewing methods which enable sampled respondents to project their views, beliefs and feelings onto a third-party or into some task situation. The researcher sets up a situation for the respondents asking them to express their own views, or to complete/ interpret some ambiguous stimulus presented to them. Various types. More common ones are: Free Word Association Sentence Completion Unfinished scenario/story completion Cartoon completion test 20

21 FREE WORD ASSOCIATION In this technique, a list of carefully selected stimulus words or phrases related to the topic of research are read out, one at a time, to a respondent. The respondent is asked to respond with the first word or phrase that comes to his/her mind. The list of words should contain a mixture of test words and neutral words.

In the cartoon technique, the respondent is shown a comic-strip like cartoon with two characters in a conversation. While the speech of one character is shown in his/her balloon,the other balloon is empty. The respondent is asked to assume the role of the other person and fill the empty balloon with a speech. Where can I get a watch of this quality?

23 SUMMARY Qualitative research can be used alone
or as part of mixed research Main advantage is that is capable generating rich data on WHY? Useful when looking at NEW things Rich data may be difficult to analyse

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