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Unit 3 - The Age of Absolute Monarchs (1500 – 1800)

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1 Unit 3 - The Age of Absolute Monarchs (1500 – 1800)
Lesson 1 – Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

2 Absolutism in Europe Absolute Monarchs – Wanted to control every aspect of their population’s daily lives! They believed in Divine Right – God created the monarchy and he or she answered only to God and not his/ her subjects.

3 17th Century Crises Lead to Absolutism
Wars about religion and land caused chaos! Chaos caused problems! Rulers raised armies to go in and solve ’em! Armies paid by heavy taxes! Taxes broke backs! When the peasants rebelled, the armies attacked! Absolute rulers created large bureaucracies to regulate peasants, thus the empire didn’t crack!

4 Remember Me? Charles V (1516 – 1556)
Hapsburg Empire/ Holy Roman Empire –elected by Ger. princes Inherited Spain & its Empire from Ferdinand & Isabella Inherited Austria and the Neth. from his other grandparents Reformation, Luther, Peace of Augsburg (1555) & many wars against France & Ottoman Turks (Muslims) who had reached E. Europe by the 1500s.

5 Charles V Retires in 1556 He divided his empire because he believed it was too large for one man to rule. Gave Austria to his brother King Ferdinand (Hapsburg) of Hungary – next Emperor of HRE Phillip II got Spain, Neth., Naples & Milan, Italy, & America Spain = Most Powerful in Eur.

6 Phillip II (1556 – 1598) Shy, serious, untrusting, deeply religious, & hard working! By 1650 – Ships had supplied 339 K lbs. of gold & 16 K tons of silver from the Americas (22% went to monarchy!) He could be aggressive for the sake of empire (1580 his uncle, the king, died & seized Portugal & its overseas empire)

7 The Escorial – Madrid, Spain
His house, office, monastery, and burial vault all in one. From his bedroom he could see the altar of the monastery – he was deeply very religious. He kept the coffins of his dead father, brother, wives, & children to remind him of his mortality!

8 Bell Ringer – Spain’s Empire & Absolutism
The theory of Divine Right states that the power to rule comes from __________. a. the Pope b. God c. the people 2. When Charles V retired in 1556, he divided his empire between his _____ and _____. a. Grandfather; Grandson b. Son; Daughter c. Brother; Son In 1571, at the Battle of Lepanto, Spain’s navy defeated the navy of the _______. a. Portuguese b. English c. Muslim Turks What was the Escorial? a. Phillip II’s palace b. A Spanish Warship c. A Spanish judge during the Inquisition

9 Phillip II – “Defender of Catholicism”
Religious upheaval (the Reformation) was not new to Spain. Reconquista vs. Muslims finally over around 1492 & the Inquisition vs. heretics & non-believers. 1571 – 200 ships (Sp. & Venice) defeated large Ottoman fleet in Battle of Lepanto, Greece.

10 The Netherlands Revolt (1566-1581)
He kept an army in Sp. Netherlands to keep Dutch under control. Holland had many Calvinists and Phillip II was Catholic, plus they hated Spain. Taxes were raised on Dutch & they rebelled. In 6 yrs. 18,000 Dutch were killed by Spanish Duke of Alva’s army. 1581 – 7 N. Provinces est. Dutch Republic & 10 Cath. Provinces (Belgium) stayed w/ Spain.

11 The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588)
Queen Elizabeth I ( ) of England was Protestant and supported Dutch vs. Spain. She allowed “sea dogs” or pirates to raid Sp. Ports in Am. & Sp. Ships. Sir Francis Drake was knighted not punished. Spain sent 68 ships w/ 60 K soldiers to invade England. Smaller Eng. Ships and “Protestant Wind” destroyed the Armada. Spain was not a threat to England. The Spanish Armada

12 Spain’s Empire Weakens
Inflation – Decline in the value of $$$ due to rising population & too much silver. Taxes – Spanish nobles didn’t pay, but lower classes did. Thus, no middle class businesses developed. Wars – Phillip II had to borrow from Italy and Germany to pay for them and had to repay + interest. Guilds (trade unions) made Sp. Produced goods more expensive so they bought from their enemies France, England, & the Netherlands (mercantilism). Inquisition – Drove many skilled Moors away by 1500.

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