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{ Spain’s Empire & European Absolutism Vocab: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right.

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Presentation on theme: "{ Spain’s Empire & European Absolutism Vocab: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right."— Presentation transcript:

1 { Spain’s Empire & European Absolutism Vocab: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right

2 Spain’s Powerful Empire  Led by the Hapsburg family that was ruled by Charles V.  Charles V was a devout Catholic who fought Muslims & Lutherans.  Retired to a monastery and divided his kingdom between his brother Ferdinand and his son Philip II.

3 Philip II  Took over the Portuguese kingdom & land after the death of his uncle in 1580.  Philip was able to become wealthy due to the vast amount of gold and silver bullion collected from the America’s.  The wealth provided a standing army of 50,000 soldiers.

4  Was very religious like his father Charles V.  Drove the Muslims out with the Reconquista.  His grandparents used The Spanish Inquisition to deal with heretics.  Philip defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1571 at Lepanto.  1588 the Spanish Armada was defeated by the English. Philip II

5  Due to its wealth, Spanish nobility & monarchs became patrons of the arts.  16 th & 17 th centuries were the golden age of Spanish Art.  2 artists standout El Greco & Diego Velasquez.  El Greco’s painting reflected Spain’s deep religious culture. Velasquez was for the monarchy. Golden Age of Art

6 {{ El Greco Diego Velasquez Spanish Art

7  Cervantes Don Quixote de la Mancha is called the birth of the modern European novel.  Don Quixote was a poor Spanish nobleman.  Some state the book was mocking chivalry others say that it was about an idealistic person frustrated with the materialistic world.

8  Gold & Silver coming from the Americas caused Spain long term economic problems.  Inflation was caused by the increase of Spain’s population and deflation of silver.  Spain expelled the Moors & Jews in 1500 which meant they lost artisans and businessmen.  Noblemen did not pay taxes. The poor did which led to no development of a middle class. The Spanish Empire Weakens

9  Spanish products were more expensive than the other European countries.  Money that should have went to Spain went to her enemies.  The Spanish kings had to borrow money from German & Italian bankers to fund their wars.  The Dutch revolted against the Spanish. Spanish Problems

10  The Dutch had a middle class and were Calvinists.  Philip raised taxes in an attempt to crush the Protestants.  1566 Protestants ransacked Catholic Churches. In response 1,500 Protestants were executed. The Dutch Revolt

11 Dutch Revolt  William of Orange leads the Dutch against the Spaniards.  Turning point was the flooding of Leiden in 1574.  The floods drove the Spanish troops away.  1579 the 7 Protestant provinces unite and declare their independence from Spain.

12  Religious toleration was practiced in The Netherlands.  Dutch became an economic powerhouse.  Dutch replaced the Italians as the bankers of the world.  Shrewd businessmen making money in timber & grain. The Dutch Prosper

13 Dutch Art  1600’s the Netherlands became like Florence in the 1400’s.  The greatest artist of the time was Rembrandt. He painted portraits of wealthy merchants.  The works of Dutch artists highlight the importance of the merchants, civic leaders and middle class in the Netherlands.

14  These were rulers who wanted to be absolute monarchs.  They believed all power in the state belonged to them.  They also believed in the divine right which meant that they were God’s representative on earth. Absolutism in Europe

15  The decline of feudalism, rise of cities and the growth of national kingdoms all contributed to the authority of monarchs.  Monarchs supported business.  The loss of Church authority allowed the monarchy to gain more power.  The overburden of taxes caused many to revolt which made the monarchs change their tactics to keep power. Growing Power of Monarchs

16 Monarchs Adapts  Increase the size of their courts  Created new government bureaucracies  Freed themselves from Parliament

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