2 Big IdeaDuring a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled Spain with a strong hand and establishing tradition of ruling as an absolute monarch with a divine right to rule.
3 Charles V A king from the Hapsburg family of Austria ruled a huge amount of land in Europe and the Americas:Spain and their Colonial EmpireParts of ItalyLands in AustriaAnd the Netherlandselected Holy Roman Emperor and ran most of Germany
4 Charles V … Retires?After agreeing to the Peace of Augsburg, which stopped the 30 years war, he retiredSplits lands:brother Ferdinand: gave Austria and the Holy Roman Empireson, Philip II: he gave Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italian lands, and the Spanish American Colonies.
6 Philip Seizes Portugal Philip was religious and very aggressive to add more land to his Empire1580-king of Portugal diesPhilip was the king’s nephew & he seizes the Portuguese throne, land, and colonial empire.
7 Philip’s Empire Brings Gold Philip ‘s Empire brought him incredible wealth:By Spanish mines in New World supplied Spain with 339,000 pounds of GoldSpanish mined 16,000 tons of silverThe “Royal Share” of each shipload was 1/4th to 1/5th
8 Philip as the Defender of Catholicism Philip refused to let Protestantism into his empireFights a war against the Ottoman Empire for the Popelaunched the Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I of England
9 “Golden Age” of SpainEven though Philip was busy fighting wars in Europe, Spain enjoyed a Golden Age in Art and Literature as well…Artists such as El Greco and Velazquez painted fantastic portraits and scenes in brilliant colors with lifelike featuresThe literary masterpiece of “Don Quixote” was written by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this era as well
10 El GrecoEl Greco was born in Crete, but lived in Spain for much of his adult life, specifically in Toledo, Spain
11 Diego VelazquezVelazquez was the official court painter of the royal family, but often painted his self portrait and scenes of everyday life as well.
12 Miguel de Cervantes Cervantes wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha A book about a poor noble who goes crazy after reading too many books on historic knightsSome critics think Cervantes was making fun of chivalry, others say Don Quixote is about frustration in a materialistic world.
13 The Spanish Empire Weakens Other reasons for Spain’s decline:Guilds still ran Spain’s craft industrySpanish Merchants traded with French, English, and Dutch craftsmen rather then Spain’sSpanish nobles did not have to pay taxesA Spanish middle class never developsSpanish kings borrowed money from German and Italian banks to fight wars, where even Philip II had to declare Spain was “bankrupt” 3 times!Too much gold meant Spain endured severe inflationInflation is when the value of money declines while the price of goods and services risescaused by two reasons: gold and silver’s value was low and merchants raises prices
14 Dutch ArtThe Netherlands become the 1600’s version of Florence during the Renaissance.Artists such as Rembrandt van Rijn and Jan Vermeer painted subjects from kings to every day people using:Brilliant colorsTechniquesAnd the use of light and dark shadowing.
15 Dutch Trading EmpireThe stability of the government of the Netherlands meant the Dutch people could focus on economic growthFor example: the Dutch found ways to make incredible profits on even farm goods items such as grain and tulip bulbs.The Dutch build the largest fleet of ships in the world, 4,800 ships by 1636.These ships helped the Dutch East India Company dominate the spice trade, and thus replacing Italians as the bankers of Europe.
16 Absolutism in EuropeAll European kings and queens of this era strived to be Absolute Monarchs.Absolute Monarchs were kings and queens who held ALL, or absolute, power within their states’ boundariesAbsolute monarchs also believed in Divine Right- the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch was God’s representative on earth.
17 Growing Power of European Monarchs The power Monarchs of Europe grew in this for the following reasons:The decline of Feudalism and growth of citiesThe growing middle class supported monarchs because they promised peace which was helpful for businessThe wealth of the colonies paid for monarchs’ ambitionsChurch authority broke down because of the ReformationCrises in Europe…
18 Crises Leads to Absolutism The 1600’s was a period of great upheavalContinuous warfare over land and territory in EuropeNeeded more armies, more Armies meant more taxesThese taxes meant unrest and even, sometimes, revolt!Some monarchs regulated religious worship and social gatheringsSome created new government agencies to control the economyMost wanted to gain more power away from their people’s government such as parliamentAll of these monarchs strived to live like Louis XIV of France