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Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

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Presentation on theme: "Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
Chapter 21 Section 1

2 Key Terms Absolute Monarch Divine right Philip II

3 The King Becomes and Emperor
1516 Teenaged Charles became king Member of the Hapsburg family Absolute monarch-a ruler whose power was not limited to consulting with other Divine right- received their power from God and cannot be challenged

4 Charles the V and the Empire
’s they imposed their will on Europe King of Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, colonies in the Americas Borrowed money to get votes to be the Holy Roman Emperor

5 Charles V and the Empire
Now controls Italy, Austria and parts of Germany Charles face many enemies Charles faced religious fighting Closely connected to the Catholic Church

6 Charles the V and the Empire
1521 Charles confronted Martin Luther Declared him and outlaw Peace of Augsburg gave German prince the right to choose Catholic or Protestant

7 Charles V and the Empire
Charles had more success in the Americas Spanish explorers claimed much the Americas for Spain Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs Francisco Coronado explored and found gold 20 years later gold was flowing from the Americas

8 Dividing the Empire Charles V gave up his throne in 1556
Divided his empire between his brother and his son Philip II ruled Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, and Spain’s colonies in the Americas Charles V spent the rest of his life in a monastery

9 Spain under Philip II Reached its peak of grandeur
Empire provided with incredible wealth By ,000 pounds of gold and 16,000 tons of silver bullion from America King claimed between a fourth or a fifth of each shipment 1580 Philip seized the Portuguese kingdom

10 Religion and Revolt Philip II devout Catholic
Leader of the Counter-Reformation Philip’s duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims Pope called on Catholic princes to take arms against the Ottoman Empire

11 Artistic Achievements
Greek Domenico Theotocopoulos known as El Greco Famous for elongated human figures Religious work reflected the Reformation Diego Velazquez-portrayed people of all social classes with great dignity

12 Literature Miquel de Cervantes- wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
Man caught between medieval and modern world Mocking chivalry Juana Ines de la Cruz-Wrote poetry, thought women should be educated (criticized by the Church)

13 The Spanish Empire Weakens
Severe inflation with decline in value of money Spain’s population was growing More people demanded food and good Merchants were able to set prices Silver flooded the market Needed more silver to buy things

14 An Empire in Decline England remained Protestant
Spain had internal problems Spanish bought goods from France, England and Netherlands Philip spent wealth on constant warfare Borrowed money from German and Italian bankers Went Bankrupt 3 times

15 An Empire in Decline Spain expelled the Muslims and the Jews
Lost valuable artisans and business men Spain’s nobles did not pay taxes Spain’s industries relied on their agriculture Economy lagged behind other countries Spain declined as a major power

16 Religion and Revolt Faith clashed with Calvinist Protestantism
Spreading through the low countries Dutch refused allegiance to Philip II Sent Duke of Alva Court of Alva tortured and executed thousands of people

17 Spain and England Spain and England were rivals
English sent aid to Dutch rebels Infuriated Philip England’s Queen Elizabeth was allowing attacks on Spanish ships Stole the gold and silver for England

18 Religion and Revolt 1609 seven provinces broke away formed the Netherlands Became the United Provinces Ten southern provinces remained Catholic and in Spanish control (Modern day Belgium)

19 Independent Dutch Prosper
Dutch Art 1600’s became the Florence of 1400’s Had the best banks and the best artists Rembrandt van Rijn-greatest Dutch artist of the period Painted wealthy middle class merchants Group portraits Night Watch

20 Rembrandt

21 The Independent Dutch Prosper
Jan Vermeer used effects of light and dark Painted women doing familiar activities Both artists work reveal how important merchants, civic leaders were in 17 century Netherlands


23 Dutch Trading Empire Stable government allowed Dutch to concentrate on economic growth Dutch had the largest fleet in the world 4,800 ships in 1636 Dutch East India Company dominates Asian spice trade Dutch replace Italians as bankers in Europe

24 Spain and England King Philip II wanted to stop England’s raids and return it to Catholicism Spanish Armada- 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers Fleet was called invincible, unbeatable Sailed into English Channel 1588

25 Spain and England Spanish packed ships for a land invasion
Planned to join forces with Spanish forces in the Netherlands Naval battles damaged the fleet English set 8 ships on fire and aimed them at the Armada Spain retreated and lost several ships in a storm

26 The Theory of Absolutism
Absolute monarchs- kings and queens hold all the power Goal to control every aspect of society Divine right- the idea that God created the monarchy Each monarch was God's representative

27 Growing Power of Europe’s Monarchs
Monarchs grew after the Middle Ages Growing middle class backed monarchs Monarchs promised peace and supported business Used wealth of colonies Church authority broke down (Reformation)

28 Crisis lead to Absolutism
17 century territorial conflicts led to constant warfare Governments built huge armies Peasant revolted Monarchs imposed order Create government bureaucracies to control economy

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